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Objective—To evaluate efficacy of embryo transfer into seronegative recipients, using the procedure proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS), for preventing vertical transmission of Neospora caninum in cattle.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—87 recipient cows and heifers and their embryo transfer calves from 22 donors originating from 9 dairy herds.

ProcedureNeospora caninum serologic status of donors and recipients was determined before collection and transfer of embryos. Viable embryos were washed and treated with trypsin. Recipients in experimental groups A (n = 50) and B (29) were seronegative and received embryos from seropositive and seronegative donors, respectively. Recipients in group C (n = 8) were seropositive and received embryos from seronegative or seropositive donors. Antibody titers against N caninum were determined monthly during pregnancy in recipients and in calf blood samples collected at birth. Tissues collected from stillborn calves and aborted fetuses were analyzed histologically and by immunohistochemical (IHC) methods.

Results—76 calves and 11 fetuses and stillborn calves were examined. All calves from groups A and B were seronegative (n = 70) or lacked evidence of infection by use of tissue analysis (9). In group C, 5 of 6 calves were seropositive at birth, and IHC results were positive for 1 of 2 calves. Vertical transmission rate was significantly lower in groups A and B (0%) than in group C (75%).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Embryo transfer into seronegative recipients, using the procedure proposed by IETS, is an effective way to prevent vertical transmission of N caninum. Results provide support for pretransfer testing of all embryo transfer recipients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 1803–1806)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify changes over time in relative expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) in synovial fluid from healthy calves and calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis.

Animals—12 Holstein calves.

Procedures—In 7 calves, Escherichia coli was injected in the right tarsal joint on day 1. Joint lavage was performed on day 2, and calves were treated with ceftiofur from days 2 through 21. Synovial fluid samples were collected on days 1 (before inoculation), 2 (before joint lavage), 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. In the remaining 5 calves, joint lavage was performed on day 2 and synovial fluid samples were collected from the left tarsal joint. Relative expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was determined by means of gel zymography.

Results—On day 1, MMP-2 was detected in all synovial fluid samples but MMP-9 was not detected. In calves with septic arthritis, values for relative expression of MMP-9 monomer and dimer were significantly increased on days 2 through 20 and days 2 through 24, respectively, and relative expression of MMP-2 was significantly increased on days 3 through 20. There were significant linear associations between relative expression of the monomer and dimer forms of MMP-9 and between neutrophil count and relative expression of the MMP-9 monomer and dimer forms.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that relative expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 increased in synovial fluid from calves with experimentally induced septic arthritis, with relative expression remaining high for several days after infection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To describe clinical findings and diagnostic test results and identify potential prognostic indicators for calves with septic arthritis.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 64 calves with septic arthritis.

PROCEDURES The medical record database for a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify calves ≤ 6 months old that were treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014. Data evaluated included signalment, history, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. Descriptive data were generated, and calves were assigned to 2 groups (neonatal [≤ 28 days old] or postneonatal [29 to 180 days old]) on the basis of age at hospital admission for comparison purposes.

RESULTS 64 calves had 92 infected joints; 17 calves had polyarthritis. Carpal joints were most frequently affected followed by the stifle and tarsal joints. Forty-nine bacterial isolates were identified from synovial specimens for 38 calves, and the most commonly identified isolates were catalase-negative Streptococcus spp (n = 14) and Mycoplasma bovis (9). Calves in the neonatal group had a shorter interval between onset of clinical signs and hospitalization and were more likely to have an infected carpal joint than calves in the postneonatal group. Outcome was positive for 35 calves. Synovial fluid total nucleated cell count was positively associated with a positive outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that empirical antimicrobial treatment for calves with septic arthritis should target gram-positive catalase-negative cocci and M bovis and that synovial fluid total nucleated cell count might be a useful prognostic indicator.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcome for cattle that developed a retroperitoneal abscess (RA) following paralumbar fossa laparotomy (PFL).


32 Holstein cows with RA.


The record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify cattle that were treated for an RA between January 1995 and March 2017. Cattle with an RA > 30 cm in diameter located 3.5 cm subjacent to the skin that had undergone a PFL < 3 months before examination for the RA were evaluated. Information extracted from the record of each cow included signalment; physical examination, clinicopathologic, and transabdominal ultrasonographic findings; treatments administered; and outcome. Milk production data were analyzed for the lactations before, during, and after RA treatment.


Common physical examination findings were rumen hypomotility, anorexia, and fever, and common clinicopathologic findings were anemia and neutrophilia. Abdominal palpation per rectum and transabdominal ultrasonography facilitated RA diagnosis and identification of the optimal location for drainage. Thirty of 32 cows underwent surgical drainage of the RA and prolonged administration of systemic antimicrobials. Two cows were euthanized because of concurrent peritonitis, including 1 that underwent surgical RA drainage. Thirty cows were discharged from the hospital alive, and most returned to their previous level of milk production.


Although uncommon, RA should be suspected in cows that develop anorexia and fever within 3 months after PFL. Cows with RA often returned to their previous level of milk production, but treatment was generally prolonged and costly.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus (DSFV) and determine the prognosis for affected cattle undergoing surgery.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—29 dairy cattle.

Procedures—The medical records were analyzed for history, signalment, clinical signs, medical management, surgical findings, and outcome.

Results—29 cattle were determined to have DSFV between December 2006 and August 2010. Twenty cattle had had an omentopexy or pyloropexy performed 1 day to 2 years before initial evaluation. Cattle were afebrile, tachycardic, and moderately dehydrated, with a small zone of percussion with a ping at the 10th to 12th right intercostal spaces and associated succussion. Biochemical changes were a severe hypokalemic (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L; median, 3.1 mmol/L; range, 2.08 to 3.92 mmol/L), hypochloremic (mean, 69.7 ± 11.1 mmol/L; median, 71.7 mmol/L; range, 49.1 to 94.1 mmol/L) metabolic alkalosis (mean total CO2, 44.5 ± 7.4 mmol/L; median, 45.3 mmol/L; range, 31.5 to 59.6 mmol/L) and hyperbilirubinemia (mean, 32.4 ± 29.0 μmol/L; median, 20.5 μmol/L; range, 7.8 to 107 μmol/L). Surgical findings for DSFV included an empty descending duodenum adjacent to a dorsally displaced and dilated cranial segment of the duodenum, distended abomasum and gallbladder, and a tight volvulus at the base of the duodenal sigmoid flexure. Manual reduction was considered successful if the descending duodenum filled after cranial duodenal massage. Twenty-two patients were successfully treated; the remaining 7 died or were euthanized within 4 days after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A condition clinically resembling abomasal volvulus but affecting the duodenal sigmoid flexure has been recognized in dairy cattle. When a focal, dorsal right-sided ping and succussion are present combined with severe hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and high bilirubin concentration, DSFV should be suspected, especially when there is a history of prior abomasal fixation. After surgical correction, the prognosis is fair to good.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association