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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the salient variables of the time-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in clinically normal Doberman Pinschers and to compare those variables with those of Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy and mild to moderate myocardial failure.

Animals—46 Doberman Pinschers.

Procedure—HRV was analyzed in the time-domain from 24-hour Holter recordings obtained from 28 Doberman Pinschers with normal echocardiograms and 18 Doberman Pinschers with echocardiograms consistent with mild to moderate myocardial failure.

Results—Significant differences in HRV variables between the 2 groups of dogs were not detected. The HRV was greater during the nighttime (12 AM to 6 AM), compared with the 24-hour day and an 18-hour (6 AM to 12 AM) period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HRV of dogs with mild to moderate myocardial failure was not different from that of clinically normal dogs, because there were no disturbances of autonomic balance, baroreceptor function, and other factors that influence HRV in the dogs with cardiomyopathy, or the sensitivity of time-domain analysis was overwhelmed by normal sinus arrhythmia. The techniques now used to study HRV have important limitations, especially in dogs, and better noninvasive tests of autonomic function are needed. ( Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 506–511)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify, by means of 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, electrocardiographic abnormalities in overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers in which results of echocardiography were abnormal.

Design—Clinical case series.

Animals—56 (35 male, 21 female) overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with echocardiographic evidence of cardiomyopathy on initial examination that subsequently died of cardiomyopathy.

Procedure—Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) recordings obtained at the time of initial examination were reviewed. For all dogs, scan quality was > 90%.

Results—Initial Holter recordings of all 56 dogs contained ventricular premature contractions (VPC). Thirty-six (65%) dogs had > 1,000 VPC/24 h, 17 (31%) had > 5,000 VPC/24 h, and 11 (19%) had > 10,000 VPC/24 h. Fifty-four (96%) dogs had couplets of VPC, 37 (66%) had triplets of VPC, and 36 (64%) had episodes of nonsustained (< 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia. Number of VPC/24 h during the initial Holter recordings was positively correlated with numbers of couplets and triplets of VPC and number of ventricular escape beats and negatively correlated with left ventricular fractional shortening. Twentyeight dogs died suddenly prior to the putative onset of congestive heart failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that along with echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography can be used to help identify overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 1328–1332)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize ambulatory electrocardiographic results of overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers and determine associations between those results and development of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—114 (58 male, 56 female) overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers without echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease on initial examination.

Procedure—Echocardiograms and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms (Holter recordings) were obtained initially and at variable intervals. The status (live vs dead) of all dogs was known at least 2 years and as long as 10 years after initial examination (mean [± SD] follow-up time, 4.33 ± 1.84 years). Associations between development of dilated cardiomyopathy and number of ventricular premature contractions (VPC), age, and sex were determined.

Results—55 dogs (48%) did not have VPC on initial Holter recordings, and only 8 dogs had > 50 VPC/24 hours. The likelihood that a dog would have VPC was associated with increasing age and being male. At least 1 VPC/24 hours, and in particular, > 50 VPC/24 hours or ≥ 1 couplet or triplet of VPC/24 hours, were predictive of subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Fifty-four dogs (47%) developed dilated cardiomyopathy; 12 were still alive at the end of the study, and 42 had died. Twenty-five of these 42 dogs died after the onset of congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 died suddenly before the onset of overt CHF, and 2 died of noncardiac causes. More males developed dilated cardiomyopathy than females, and dogs that died suddenly were approximately 1 year younger than those that developed CHF.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of high-quality Holter recordings may be used to identify overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers that are at a high risk for dilated cardiomyopathy. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:34–39)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril in cats with induced renal insufficiency.

Animals—32 cats.

Procedure—Renal mass was surgically reduced, and cats were assigned to 1 of 4 eight-cat groups. Group 1 received placebo, whereas groups 2, 3, and 4 received benazepril hydrochloride orally once daily for approximately 6.5 months at the following doses: group 2, 0.25 to 0.50 mg/kg of body weight; group 3, 0.50 to 1.00 mg/kg; and group 4, 1.00 to 2.00 mg/kg. Arterial blood pressures, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal plasma flow were determined before treatment and during the treatment period. Other determinants of renal hemodynamics were measured by use of micropuncture techniques. Renal biopsy specimens were examined microscopically.

Results—Compared with cats that received placebo, mean systolic arterial blood pressure was significantly less and GFR significantly greater in cats that received benazepril. Glomerular capillary pressure and the ratio of efferent to afferent arteriolar vascular resistance were also significantly less in treated cats. However, histologic differences in renal specimens were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with benazepril sustained single nephron GFR in remnant nephrons of cats with induced renal insufficiency. Administration of benazepril was also associated with a small but significant reduction in degree of systemic hypertension and an increase in whole kidney GFR. Benazepril may be an effective treatment to slow the rate of progression of renal failure in cats with renal disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:375–383)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research