To describe the management of dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI) by continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), and to investigate the relationship between a prescribed CRRT dose, the hourly urea reduction ratio (URR), and the overall efficacy.
45 client-owned dogs diagnosed with severe AKI, receiving 48 CRRT treatments at a veterinary teaching hospital.
Retrospective study. Search of medical records of dogs with AKI managed by CRRT.
Median serum urea and creatinine at CRRT initiation were 252 mg/dL [Inter quartile range (IQR), 148 mg/dL; range, 64 to 603 mg/dL] and 9.0 mg/dL (IQR, 7 mg/dL; range, 4.3 to 42.2 mg/dL), respectively. Median treatment duration was 21 hours (IQR, 8.8 hours; range, 3 to 32 hours). Systemic heparinization and regional citrate anticoagulation were used in 24 treatments each (50%). The prescribed median CRRT dose for the entire treatment was 1 mL/kg/min (IQR, 0.4 mL/kg/min; range, 0.3 to 2.5 mL/kg/min). The median hourly URR was 4% (IQR, 1%; range, 2% to 12%), overall URR was 76% (IQR, 30%; range, 11% to 92%) and median Kt/V was 2.34 (IQR, 1.9; range, 0.24 to 7.02). The CRRT dose was increased gradually from 0.9 mL/kg/min to 1.4 mL/kg/min (P < .001) and the hourly URR decreased from 6.5% to 5.5% (P = .05). The main complication was clotting of the extra-corporeal circuit, occurring in 6/48 treatments (13%). Twenty-four dogs (53%) survived to discharge.
CRRT is safe when the prescription is based on the current veterinary guidelines for gradual urea reduction. Treatment efficacy can be maximized by gradually increasing the dose according to the actual URR.
Case Description—A 15-kg (33-lb) pregnant female mixed-breed dog of unknown age was referred because of a 10-day history of difficulty breathing.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings were dyspnea, tachypnea, decreased bronchovesicular sounds (bilateral), muffled heart sounds, and abdominal distention with palpable fetuses. Hematologic abnormalities included anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Abnormalities detected during serum biochemical analysis included decreases in concentrations of albumin, sodium, triglycerides, and total calcium and increases in activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. Thoracic radiography revealed a diaphragmatic hernia with fetuses and a soft tissue or fluid opacity within the thoracic cavity.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory celiotomy, ovariohysterectomy, partial sternotomy, placement of a right-sided thoracostomy tube, and herniorrhaphy were performed. After surgery, pneumothorax developed, and the thoracostomy tube was used to remove pleural effusion and free air. The pneumothorax did not resolve after continuous drainage of the thoracic cavity for 4 days. Autologous blood pleurodesis was performed by infusion of 80 mL (6 mL/kg [2.73 mL/lb]) of whole blood. The pneumothorax resolved immediately after injection of the blood.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood pleurodesis was used for resolution of pneumothorax in a dog after correction of a diaphragmatic hernia. Blood pleurodesis may provide a simple, safe, and inexpensive medical treatment for resolution of persistent (duration > 5 days) pneumothorax when surgery is not an option.
Objective—To determine outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma treated with various multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocols and identify factors associated with prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—18 dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, treatment, and outcome.
Results—8 dogs had a complete remission (CR), with a median remission duration of 120 days. Dogs with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or a combination of hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia were less likely to achieve a CR. Overall median survival time (MST) was 63 days (range, 2 to 402 days). In a multivariate analysis, response to treatment and serum albumin concentration were associated with MST. Dogs that did not achieve a CR had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs that did achieve a CR (13 vs 283 days, respectively). Dogs with serum albumin concentration < 2.5 g/dL at the time treatment was initiated had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs with serum albumin concentration within reference limits (10 vs 128 days, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between serum albumin concentration and survival time (r = 0.74).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with primary hepatic lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy had a poor prognosis, with a low response rate. Dogs that responded to treatment had a better prognosis, and dogs with hypoalbuminemia had a poorer prognosis.