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  • Author or Editor: Gia Klauss x
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Objective—To investigate cellular death in the neurosensory portion of the retina during the first 7 days after onset of clinical signs of overt primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in dogs.

Sample Population—14 globes from dogs with PACG and 2 normotensive globes from dogs with PACG in the opposite eye.

Procedures—Retinas were examined via light microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- mediated biotin-dUTP nick end-labeling.

Results—Necrosis of ganglion cells and segmental degeneration of the nerve fiber layer rapidly progressed to scattered full-thickness retinal attenuation and disorganization. Apoptosis was detectable within 1 day after onset of PACG and was prominent by 3 days. Necrosis of ganglion cells was significantly greater in retinas affected for ≤ 1 day, compared with retinas affected for > 1 day. In contrast, apoptosis in the ganglion cell layer was significantly greater in retinas affected for > 1 day, compared with retinas affected for ≤ 1 day. End-stage retinal atrophy was seen by day 7.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The presence of necrotic ganglion cells within 1 day after onset of clinical signs suggests a narrow window of opportunity to initiate effective therapy in overt PACG. Photoreceptor death is an important and striking aspect of neurosensory retinal degeneration after acute onset of PACG. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:257–261)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize features and response to treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with oral administration of etodolac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—65 cases obtained from a survey of veterinary ophthalmologists (group A) and 146 cases reported to Fort Dodge Animal Health (group B).

Procedures—Data analyzed included breed, sex, age, weight, dose and duration of etodolac administration, results of Schirmer tear test at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, treatments, and response to treatments. Groups A and B were analyzed separately by use of forward stepwise logistic regression models developed to predict probability of complete remission or clinical improvement as a function of several variables.

Results—Most dogs developed severe KCS (84 eyes of 50 dogs [group A]; 111 eyes of 62 dogs [group B]). Resolution of KCS occurred in 7 of 65 (A) and 23 of 146 (B) dogs. No response to treatment was observed in 26 of 65 (A) and 27 of 146 (B) dogs. Fifty-one (A) and 52 (B) dogs had records that were sufficiently complete to use in models. In group B, dogs with etodolac treatment intervals < 6 months prior to the onset of KCS were 4.2 times as likely to have remission as were dogs with treatment intervals ≥ 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shorter duration of etodolac administration (< 6 months) was associated with improved outcome in 1 population of dogs. Monitoring of tear production should be considered prior to and during administration of etodolac in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV).

Design—Original study.

Animals—13 hawks.

Procedures—All hawks underwent complete ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp biomicroscopy and binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Eleven hawks were euthanized because of a grave prognosis; complete necropsies were performed. Eyes, brain, heart, and kidneys were processed for histologic and immunohistochemical examinations. Pooled tissue homogenates and aqueous humor samples were assessed for WNV nucleic acid via PCR assay, and anti-WNV antibody titers in aqueous humor and plasma were determined.

Results—All birds had similar funduscopic abnormalities including exudative chorioretinal lesions and chorioretinal scarring in a geographic or linear pattern. Eleven birds were euthanized, and 2 birds were released. Plasma from both released hawks and plasma and aqueous humor of all euthanized hawks that were evaluated contained anti-WNV antibodies. Except for 1 hawk, all euthanized hawks had WNV-associated disease (determined via detection of WNV antigen or nucleic acid in at least 1 organ). Histopathologic ocular abnormalities, most commonly pectenitis, were detected in all euthanized birds; several birds had segmental choroiditis, often with corresponding segmental retinal atrophy. West Nile virus antigen was detected in the retinas of 9 of the euthanized birds. In 2 hawks, WNV antigen was detected in the retina only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that funduscopically detectable chorioretinal lesions appear to be associated with WNV disease in hawks. Detection of ocular lesions may aid in antemortem or postmortem diagnosis of this condition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association