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  • Author or Editor: Gi Yong Lee x
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To evaluate the prevalence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva of brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs.


12 brachycephalic (9.58 ± 3.55 years) and 12 nonbrachycephalic (8.33 ± 4.92 years) dogs without systemic disease, regardless of breed and sex, were included in the study, and half of the dogs in each group had periodontitis.


This prospective study investigated clinical data including craniofacial ratio, ophthalmic examination results, and periodontal status of the included dogs. Bacterial samples were collected by swabbing the oral mucosa and conjunctival surfaces. The presence and quantity of bacteria were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the 10-fold dilution method. Statistical analyses were performed to assess correlations and factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctiva.


The most common bacteria in the conjunctival flora in both groups were Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium spp, and Staphylococcus spp. The prevalence of oral bacteria on the conjunctival surface was 33%, with a significantly higher incidence in brachycephalic dogs (P = .027). Oral bacteria detected in the conjunctiva were predominantly Frederiksenia canicola, Neisseria spp, and Moraxella spp. Multiple regression analysis identified age, craniofacial ratio, and gingival index as factors influencing the presence of oral bacteria in the conjunctival flora.


Oral resident bacteria have often been isolated from severe infectious corneal ulcers. This study provided evidence that brachycephalic dogs may require dental prophylaxis to reduce their oral bacterial load and that the association of oral bacteria in ocular diseases should be considered.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research