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  • Author or Editor: Germain Nappert x
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Abstract

Objective

To quantify glutamine use by viscera drained by the portal vein in neonatal calves and to determine whether uptake could be stimulated by long-term IV infusion or long-term use of oral supplements.

Animals

4 healthy neonatal calves.

Procedure

A femoral artery, jugular vein, and the portal vein were surgically cannulated in each calf. Blood flow in the portal vein was measured, using an ultrasonic transit-time flow probe. Calves were given an IV infusion of glutamine on days 6, 8, and 10 after surgery. Before the first infusion, calves were fed a diet of milk only. The diet was supplemented with glutamine for the second and third infusions. Glutamine was administered via the jugular vein during a 5-hour period. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected every hour for 5 hours.

Results

During glutamine infusion, uptake of glutamine by viscera drained by the portal vein increased in association with increased production of ammonia. Glutamine supplementation of the diet did not alter glutamine uptake. Glutamine infusion did not increase viscera uptake of indispensable amino acids. Longterm use of glutamine supplements or infusion of glutamine for periods of more than 1 hour increased glutamine uptake by viscera. Arterial leucine concentration and uptake of leucine by the viscera decreased during glutamine infusion, indicating that leucine became the limiting factor.

Conclusion

Glutamine administration (supplements or infusions) to calves may require that a mixture of amino acids be provided to improve effectiveness.

Clinical Relevance

Glutamine may be beneficial in treatments designed to promote intestinal healing in diarrheic calves. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:446-451)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To quantify glutamine use in viscera drained by the portal vein in neonatal calves and to assess the relative nutritional importance of glutamine, glucose, and acetate for enterocytes.

Animals

5 healthy neonatal calves.

Procedure

A femoral artery, jugular vein, and the portal vein were surgically cannulated in each calf. Blood flow in the portal vein was measured by use of an ultrasonographic transit-time flow probe. A series of solutions was infused on 4 days for each calf. On the infusion days, acetate, glucose, glutamine, and saline (0.9% NaCl; control) solutions were administered IV during 1-hour periods via the jugular vein. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected during the last 15 minutes of each 1-hour infusion.

Results

Uptake of glutamine and glucose by viscera drained by the portal vein was 0.3 ± 1.1 and 1.9 ± 3.1 µmol/kg0.75/min, respectively, during saline infusion. During acetate, glucose, and saline infusions, glucose was a greater source of energy for the intestines than was glutamine. However, during glutamine infusion, uptake of glutamine by viscera drained by the portal vein increased significantly (29.9 ± 11.2 µmol/kg0.75/min), which was associated with an increase in ammonia production (7.0 ± 0.5 µmol/kg0.75/min). Toxicosis was not associated with IV administration of glutamine.

Conclusion

Glutamine infusion resulted in an increase in glutamine uptake by viscera drained by the portal vein, which was associated with an increase in ammonia production and a slight increase in oxygen consumption.

Clinical Relevance

These solutions may be used to develop treatments that enhance healing of intestines of diarrheic calves. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:437-445)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a surgical preparation to study the nutrient concentration difference across the portal vein-drained viscera of preruminant calves over a 2-week period.

Animals

9 healthy preruminant male Holstein calves.

Procedure

A bilateral subcostal approach was used to reach the portal area to provide access for proper placement of an ultrasonic transit time flow probe around the portal vein. The umbilical vein was used as an entry point for the portal vein catheter. The femoral artery was also catheterized. Calves were observed daily, and food intake was recorded. Body weight was recorded weekly. The calves were euthanatized, and necropsy was performed 2 weeks after surgery.

Results

Of the 9 calves, 7 recovered without surgical complications. Within 24 hours of surgery, 1 calf developed an intestinal hernia at the flank incision that was surgically repaired without further complications. One calf was euthanatized a week after surgery because it developed septicemia secondary to catheter-related infection.

Conclusion

The bilateral subcostal approach provided access to the portal area, and the umbilical vein was useful as an entry point. Application of an ultrasonic flow probe provided consistent measurements of blood flow over a 2-week period.

Clinical Relevance

These results may have implications for development of treatment to promote gastrointestinal tract healing in calves with diarrhea. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1323-1328)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research