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  • Author or Editor: Gerhardt G. Schurig x
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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate live attenuated Brucella abortus RB51, killed B suis cells, O-polysaccharide (OPS) from B abortus 1119-3 and OPS from B suis 1330, for protection of swine against B suis challenge exposure under farm conditions.

Animals

10 infected boars, 160 unvaccinated control sows and their 1,040 progeny, and 610 vaccinated sows and their 6,600 progeny.

Procedure

Gilts (45 to 65 days or 4 to 6 months old) were vaccinated or not vaccinated. For the latter gilts, additional variables studied were dose, number of doses, and delivery route. Mature gilts were mated with 4 infected boars, then serologic reaction to Brucella spp, results of bacteriologic culture of vaginal secretions, presence of abortion, and litter size were assessed. Various tissues obtained from aborted fetuses were obtained for culture of Brucella spp.

Results

About 40% of unvaccinated control gilts seroconverted to Brucella spp, 27% were positive for OPS precipitation by use of agar gel immunodiffusion, 23% aborted their fetuses, and the remaining gilts had litters of 5 to 8 pigs. Killed B suis cells provided the following protection: 25% of vaccinates were seropositive, 5% had positive results of agar gel immunodiffusion, 5% aborted, and the remaining gilts had litters of 7 to 8 pigs. Gilts that received live RB51 or OPS vaccine were protected. Serologic reactions were always negative, abortion did not occur (ie, 100% were protected), and litter size was 10 to 12 pigs.

Conclusions

Live attenuated B abortus RB51 or purified OPS was effective in protecting gilts against B suis infections. Dose (106 to 109 cells, 100 to 500 μg, respectively), number of doses (1 or 3), or route (IM or PO) made little difference. Further research is required to determine why these 2 vaccine candidates are similar in protection effectiveness and whether they can be used after infection as a treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:546–551)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess humoral and protective immunity in cattle vaccinated by 12 months with Brucella abortus vaccine strains RB51 and 19 under field conditions of high and low brucellosis prevalence.

Animals

450 seronegative female cattle: 330 three to eight months old (calves), and 120 ten to twelve months old (heifers).

Procedures

Ranch A had high prevalence (39%) of brucellosis, and ranch B had low prevalence (2%), as determined by results of conventional serologic testing: agar gel immunodiffusion and the ring test. Seronegative cattle were vaccinated once or twice with 5 × 109 colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51 or once with strain 19. After vaccinating 285 cattle with strain RB51 and 165 with strain 19, 74 (26%) and 30 (18%), respectively, were bred to seropositive bulls, then were kept within the infected herd of origin.

Results

All cattle vaccinated with strain 19 seroconverted 30 days later. All 285 cattle vaccinated with strain RB51 had negative results for all serologic tests, including agar gel immunodiffusion. All RB51-vaccinated cattle that became pregnant had negative results for the ring test and for conventional serologic tests after their first calving.

Conclusions

Strain RB51 can be used as a live organism vaccine without inducing antibody titers that interfere with serodiagnosis, and induced 100% protection against field strain B abortus-induced abortion in cattle vaccinated at least 1 year before mating to an infected bull. Vaccination with strain 19 under similar conditions was less effective than vaccination with strain RB51. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1016–1020)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Effects of selenium (Se) deficiency and supplementation on production of colostral immunoglobulins by beef cows and transfer of antigen-specific and nonspecific immunoglobulins to their calves were examined. Eighty beef cows, with marginal to deficient Se status (blood Se concentration, 50 μg/L), were allotted by breed and age to 1 of 4 Se treatment groups (n = 20/group): no supplemental Se; parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg of body weight; ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of salt-mineral mix (smm); and parenteral administration of 0.1 mg of Se and 1 mg of vitamin E/kg plus ad libitum consumption of 120 mg of Se/kg of smm. All cows were inoculated IM with lysozyme. Cows consumed Se-deficient pastures or hay (21 to 62 μg/kg) during the study that began at mid-gestation and ended at postpartum hour 24. Although the concentration of specific lysozyme antibodies was not affected, cows given 120 mg of Se/kg of smm (treatments 3 and 4) had higher colostral IgG concentration (P < 0.002) than did Se-deficient cows (treatments 1 and 2). Calves from cows in treatments 3 and 4 had higher postsuckle serum concentrations of IgG (P < 0.01) than did calves from cows in treatments 1 and 2. Colostral IgM and calf serum IgM concentrations did not differ among treatments.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Eighty gestating beef cattle were used to determine the effect of trace mineral salt mixtures containing copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on selected immune functions and factors affecting copper bioavailability. Pastured cattle were randomly assigned to receive one of the following combinations of Cu and Fe in the free-choice trace mineral salt: (1) 0 mg of Cu/0 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, (2) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuSO4)/3,000 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, (3) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuSO4)/0 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt, and (4) 1,600 mg of Cu (CuCO3)/3,000 mg of Fe/kg of trace mineral salt. Total Cu/Fe consumption (from trace mineral salt) was 2/678, 193/1,050, 162/553, and 202/1,140 mg/head/d, respectively, for the 4 groups. After a 1-month period of acclimation and also on day 28 of the 36-day study, copper concentrations in serum were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group 1 than in groups 3 and 4. Serum copper concentrations did not increase with time for any group, whereas hepatic copper concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with time for all groups except group 1. Hepatic iron concentrations were similar among groups at the time of the initial and final hepatic biopsies on days 0 and 28, respectively. Hepatic iron concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.05) with time in groups 3 and 4.

Humoral response to chicken γ-globulin was high but did not differ among groups on any of the days analyzed. Neutrophil function tests, consisting of hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis of latex particles, calcium uptake, and superoxide production, were different only for phagocytosis among groups; the percentage of neutrophils phagocytizing latex beads was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for group 2 than the other groups. A similar reduction in phagocytosis was prevented by the omission of additional Fe from the trace mineral salt (groups 1 and 3) or use of CuCO3 (group 4).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a novel oral vaccine delivery system for swine, using the rough vaccine strain of Brucella abortus.

Animals—56 crossbred pigs from a brucellosis-free facility.

Procedure—In 3 separate experiments, pigs were orally vaccinated with doses of 1 × 109 to > 1 × 1011 CFU of strain RB51 vaccine. The vaccine was placed directly on the normal corn ration, placed inside a whole pecan, or mixed with cracked pecans and corn.

Results—Oral vaccination of pigs with vaccine strain RB51 resulted in a humoral immune response to strain RB51 and short-term colonization of the regional lymph nodes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A viscous liquid such as Karo corn syrup in association with pecans that scarify the oral mucosa are necessary when placing the live vaccine directly onto corn or other food rations. Doses of > 1 × 1011 CFU of RB51 organisms/pig in this mixture ensures 100% colonization of regional lymph nodes via the oral route. This method may allow an efficient and economical means to vaccinate feral swine for brucellosis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1328–1331)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine shedding and colonization profiles in mature sexually intact bulls and pregnant heifers after vaccination with a standard calfhood dose of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51).

Animals

6 sexually mature 3-year-old Jersey bulls and 7 mixed-breed heifers in midgestation.

Procedure

Bulls and pregnant heifers were vaccinated IM with the standard calfhood dose of 3 × 1010 colony-forming units of SRB51. After vaccination, selected body fluids were monitored weekly for vaccine organism shedding. Pathogenesis was monitored in bulls by weekly breeding soundness examination and, in heifers, by delivery status of the calf. Vaccine organism colonization was assessed by obtaining select tissues at necropsy for bacterial culture. Serologic analysis was performed by use of numerous tests, including complement fixation, an SRB51-based ELISA, and immunoblot analysis.

Results

After vaccination, none of the vaccinated bulls or heifers shed SRB51 in their secretions. Results of breeding soundness examination for bulls were normal as was delivery status of the pregnant heifers (6 live births, 1 dystocia). At necropsy, SRB51 was not recovered from any of the selected tissues obtained from bulls, heifers, or calves; however, serologic analysis did detect SRB51-specific antibodies in all cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Vaccination with the standard calfhood dose of SRB51 administered IM was not associated with shedding or colonization in sexually mature bulls or pregnant heifers. Also, under conditions of this study with small numbers of animals, IM vaccination with SRB51 does not appear to cause any reproductive problems when administered to sexually mature cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:722–725)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate sensitivity and specificity of 4 commonly used brucellosis screening tests in cattle and domestic water buffalo of Trinidad, and to compare test parameter estimates between cattle and water buffalo.

Animals—391 cattle and 381 water buffalo.

Procedure—4 Brucella-infected herds (2 cattle and 2 water buffalo) and 4 herds (2 of each species) considered to be brucellosis-free were selected. A minimum of 100 animals, or all animals > 1 year of age, were tested from each herd. Serum samples were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies by use of standard plate agglutination test (SPAT), card test (CT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). A Bayesian approach was used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests without the use of a gold standard, assuming conditional independence of tests.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity estimates in cattle, respectively, were SPAT, 66.7 and 98.9; CT, 72.7 and 99.6; BPAT, 88.1 and 98.1; and STAT, 80.2 and 99.3. Corresponding test estimates in water buffalo, respectively, were SPAT, 51.4 and 99.3; CT, 90.4 and 99.4; BPAT, 96.3 and 90.7; and STAT, 75.0 and 98.8. Sensitivity of the CT and specificity of the BPAT were different between cattle and water buffalo with at least 95% probability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Brucellosis serologic test performance varied by species tested, but BPAT had the highest sensitivity for screening cattle and water buffalo. Sensitivity and specificity of more than 2 screening tests can be estimated simultaneously without a gold standard by use of Bayesian techniques. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1598–1605)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) that is used in serodiagnosis of brucellosis in water buffalo and cattle, to determine the most appropriate positive cutoff value for the c-ELISA in confirmation of infection, and to evaluate species differences in c-ELISA function.

Sample population—Sera from 4 herds of cattle (n = 391) and 4 herds of water buffalo (381).

Procedure—Serum samples were evaluated for Brucella-specific antibodies by use of a c-ELISA. On the basis of previous serologic test results, iterative simulation modeling was used to classify animals as positive or negative for Brucella infection without the use of a gold standard. Accuracy of c-ELISA for diagnosis of infection was compared between cattle and water buffalo by comparison of areas under ROC curves.

Results—A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition for c-ELISA yielded sensitivity and specificity estimates, respectively, of 83.9 and 92.6% for cattle and 91.4 and 95.4% for water buffalo. A positive cutoff value of 35% inhibition yielded sensitivity and specificity estimates, respectively, of 83.9 and 96.2% for cattle and 88.0 and 97.4% for water buffalo. Areas under ROC curves were 0.94 and 0.98 for cattle and water buffalo, respectively.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—ROC curves can be estimated by use of iterative simulation methods to determine optimal cutoff values for diagnostic tests with quantitative outcomes. A cutoff value of 35% inhibition for the c-ELISA was found to be most appropriate for confirmation of Brucella infection in cattle and water buffalo. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:57–64)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine efficacy of orally administered Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 against virulent B abortus challenge exposure in cattle as a model for vaccination of wild ungulates.

Animals

20 mixed-breed beef cattle obtained from a brucellosis-free herd.

Procedure

Sexually mature, Brucella-negative beef heifers were vaccinated by mixing > 1010 viable RB51 organisms or diluent with their feed. Heifers were fed individually and consumed their entire ration. Each heifer received approximately 3×1010 colony-forming units (CFU). Six weeks after oral vaccination, heifers were pasture-bred to brucellosis-free bulls. At approximately 186 days' gestation, heifers were challenge exposed conjunctively with 107 CFU of virulent B abortus strain 2308.

Results

Vaccination with the rough variant of B abortus RB51 did not stimulate antibodies against the O-polysaccharide (OPS) of B abortus. After challenge exposure and parturition, strain 2308 was recovered from 80% of controls and only 20% of vaccinates. Only 30% of the vaccinates delivered dead, premature, or weak calves, whereas 70% of the controls had dead or weak calves.

Conclusions

Cattle vaccinated orally with the rough variant of B abortus strain RB51 develop significant (P< 0.05) protection against abortion and colonization and do not produce OPS-specific antibodies.

Clinical Relevance

Results encourage further investigation into use of strain RB51 to vaccinate wild ungulates (elk and bison) orally. (Am J Vet Res1998; 59:1575-1578)Vol 59, No. 12, December 1998

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate stable rough mutants derived from Brucella melitensis 16M and B suis 2579 (biovar 4) as vaccines against homologous and heterologous Brucella spp in the BALB/c mouse model.

Design, Animals, and Procedure

Rough mutants VTRM1 and VTRS1 were obtained from B melitensis 16M and B suis 2579, respectively, by allelic exchange of the rfbU gene encoding mannosyltransferase with a Tn5-disrupted rfbU gene. Mice were vaccinated with VTRM1 or VTRS1 and challenge exposed 8 weeks later.

Results

VTRM1 and VTRS1 replicated extensively in the spleen during the first 3 weeks of infection, then decreased rapidly. Antibodies specific for the O polysaccharide were not detected in sera of mice inoculated with either rough strain. Vaccination with VTRM1 or VTRS1 induced protection against virulent strains of B abortus (2308), B melitensis (16M), B suis biovar 1 (750), and B suis biovar 4 (2579). VTRM1 also protected against B ovis (PA) and against 4 field isolates of B abortus from bison or elk. VTRS1 conferred protection against 4 field isolates of B suis biovar 4 from reindeer. Vaccines prepared from live VTRM1 or VTRS1 provided significantly greater protection than that afforded by vaccines of killed cells in QS- 21 adjuvant. Vaccination with VTRM1 containing VTRS1 gave minimal protection against the antigenically unrelated Listeria monocytogenes, thus demonstrating the immunologic specificity of protection against Brucella spp.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results encourage evaluation, in primary host species, of VTRM1 and VTRS1, along with RB51, as alternative vaccines to strain 19, Rev 1, or other smooth phase vaccines. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:677–683)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research