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History

A 7.8-kg (17.16-lb) Holstein bull fetus at approximately 195 days of gestation with a crown-to-rump length of 57 cm was submitted for necropsy. The cow had no history of prior disease or reported periparturient clinical abnormalities, and no other recent abortions in the herd were reported. The herd's vaccination history was not available. No fetal membrane tissue was submitted for examination.

Clinical and Gross Findings

At necropsy, gross findings included hundreds of white to tan, randomly distributed, round (≤ 2-mm-diameter) foci distributed throughout the dermis (Figure 1). Similar white foci were present on the pleural surface, throughout

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1.5-year-old second-parity Large Black X Tamworth cross sow from a well-managed 20-sow, unvaccinated, pasture-raised herd of pigs in upstate New York aborted a litter of 7 variably mummified near-term fetuses and stillborn piglets. This sow had no signs of ill health other than abortion; it was housed in a group with 4 other sows and a 2-year-old Gloucestershire Old Spot boar. One of the stillborn piglets from this litter was submitted to the New York State Animal Health Diagnostic Center for necropsy; no placental tissue was submitted with the piglet. A second sow from this group had aborted

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 3-year-old 40-kg (88-lb) castrated male Doberman Pinscher (resident in New York state) was evaluated on an emergency basis because of respiratory distress. Nine months prior to the evaluation, the dog had been evaluated because of bilateral swollen carpi, and radiography had revealed an aggressive bone lesion (ABL). The condition of the carpi became progressively worse, leading to forelimb lameness; the dog had also developed coughing, sneezing, and epistaxis. Treatment with diphenhydramine (as needed) and amoxicillin (for 30 days) was initiated. Cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate specimen from an enlarged popliteal lymph node revealed evidence of histiocytic inflammation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

Outbreaks of sudden death in apparently healthy weaned dairy calves due to Strongyloides papillosus parasitism were diagnosed on 2 separate and independent New York (NY) dairies.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Most calves were found dead; however, 1 calf observed while dying showed signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, vocalization, and convulsions shortly before death. In 6 affected heifers that underwent post-mortem examination, precocious bilaterally symmetric mammary gland enlargement was seen. A portion of their parasitized living cohorts also demonstrated similar mammary gland enlargement. A diagnosis of S papillosus hyperinfection was made based upon the presence of high numbers of S papillosus ova in feces, and confirmation by S papillosus–specific PCR assays. Consistent histopathological findings in affected calves included generalized mammary gland vascular congestion, interstitial edema and hemorrhage with ductal hyperplasia. Mild multifocal cardiomyocyte degeneration was found in 5 of 14 calves examined. Factors believed to contribute to the parasite’s environmental amplification and host hyperinfection included group housing on wood shavings and high environmental temperatures and humidity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Treatment of calves with doramectin pour-on stopped mortality and resolved the udder enlargement.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Similar outbreaks have previously been described in Japan and South Bohemia (Czech Republic), where researchers hypothesized that sudden death may be due to fatal arrhythmia caused by a parasite-associated cardiotoxin. This report highlights the importance of including S papillosus among the differential diagnoses for sudden death alone or together with precocious udder enlargement in calves kept in confinement housing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association