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Objective—To determine prevalence of seizures after use of iohexol for myelography and identify associated risk factors in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—182 dogs that received iohexol for myelography in 1998.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for age, breed, sex, weight, dose and total volume of iohexol, injection site, number of injections, lesion type and location, total duration of anesthesia, duration from time of iohexol injection to recovery, presence and number of seizures, and whether surgery followed the myelogram.

Results—39 (21.4%) dogs had at least 1 generalized seizure during or after myelography. Injection site was strongly associated with prevalence of seizures, and risk of seizure was significantly higher after cerebellomedullary injections, compared with lumbar injections. Mean total volume of iohexol administered to dogs that had seizures was significantly higher, compared with that administered to dogs that did not have seizures, although dosage did not differ between groups. Weight was significantly correlated with risk of seizure, and dogs that weighed > 20 kg (44 lb) had higher prevalence of seizures than dogs that weighed < 20 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is preferential to administer iohexol via the L5-6 intervertebral space to minimize the risk of seizures. Higher prevalence of seizures in large dogs, compared with smaller dogs, may be caused by administration of larger total volumes of contrast agent per volume of CSF. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1499–1502)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and tolerability of oral levetiracetam administered as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with poorly controlled suspected idiopathic epilepsy.

Design—Open-label, noncomparative clinical trial.

Animals—12 cats suspected to have idiopathic epilepsy that was poorly controlled with phenobarbital or that had unacceptable adverse effects when treated with phenobarbital.

Procedures—Cats were treated with levetiracetam (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h). After a minimum of 1 week of treatment, serum levetiracetam concentrations were measured before and 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration, and maximum and minimum serum concentrations and elimination half-life were calculated. Seizure frequencies before and after initiation of levetiracetam treatment were compared, and adverse effects were recorded.

Results—Median maximum serum levetiracetam concentration was 25.5 μg/mL, median minimum serum levetiracetam concentration was 8.3 μg/mL, and median elimination half-life was 2.9 hours. Median seizure frequency prior to treatment with levetiracetam (2.1 seizures/mo) was significantly higher than median seizure frequency after initiation of levetiracetam treatment (0.42 seizures/mo), and 7 of 10 cats were classified as having responded to levetiracetam treatment (ie, reduction in seizure frequency of ≥ 50%). Two cats had transient lethargy and inappetence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that levetiracetam is well tolerated in cats and may be useful as an adjunct to phenobarbital treatment in cats with idiopathic epilepsy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association