Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: George W. Beran x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective—

To determine the survival of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on nonliving substances (fomites) at 25 to 27 C.

Design—

Prospective controlled study.

Sample Population—

3 solid, 6 porous, and 7 liquid fomites.

Procedure—

The fomites were contaminated with known concentrations of PRRSV. Samples for virus isolation were obtained on day 0 through day 11, assayed in cell cultures, and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate.

Results—

The virus was recovered only on day-0 samples of alfalfa, wood shavings, straw, plastic, boot rubber, and stainless steel. Virus was isolated from city water through day 11, from well water through day 9, and from 2 buffer solutions for 4 and 6 days. The virus was isolated only on day 0 from swine saliva, urine, and fecal slurry.

Clinical Implications—

Results indicated that PRRSV is a fairly labile virus, but because of its duration of viability in water, contamination of drinking water and lagoons by PRRSV-shedding swine would serve as sources of virus to infect susceptible swine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:390-392)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Of swine from 104 herds, 2,616 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, using an elisa. Data were analyzed according to swine type, herd size, facility type, and season. The true prevalence of toxoplasmosis was estimated as 5.4% among finishing swine and 11.4% among sows and gilts. Herds with <100 breeding swine were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to be infected than were herds with ≥100 breeding swine. The rate of seropositivity in breeding swine was approximately the same in infected herds, regardless of herd size. Herds with finishing swine maintained in total confinement were as likely to become infected as were herds maintained in other types of facilities, but infected herds with finishing swine maintained in confinement appeared to have a lower in-herd prevalence than did herds maintained in other types of facilities (P = 0.09). Seasonal effects were not observed, and prevalence remained relatively constant throughout the year.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A total of 5,142 kidney tissue samples and 5,111 serum samples from mature cattle in 49 states and Puerto Rico were collected at slaughter. Age of cattle ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 6.6 years). Leptospires were isolated from 88 (1.7%) kidney tissues, and 2,493 (49%) sera contained antibodies against 1 or more of 12 Leptospira interrogans serovars. Leptospires were observed by immunofluorescence in 41 (0.8%) kidney tissues. Using agglutinin-absorption tests, 73 (83%) isolates were identified as serovar hardjo, 11 (12.5%) as serovar pomona, and 4 (4.5%) as serovar grippotyphosa. By use of restriction endonuclease analysis studies of chromosomal dna, all isolates differed from reference serovars but were identical to strains previously isolated from cattle or swine in the United States. Of the serovar hardjo isolates, 85% were identical to restriction endonuclease analysis type (genotype) hardjo-bovis A and 11 (15%) were identical to genotype hardjo-bovis B. Serovar pomona isolates were identical to genotypes kennewicki A (64%) or kennewicki B (36%), and serovar grippotyphosa isolates were identical to the RM 52 strain. Isolation rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for beef cattle than for dairy cattle and were higher (P < 0.001) for bulls than for cows. Combined culture and immunofluorescence results indicated that 2% of mature cattle were renal carriers of leptospires.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A total of 2,614 swine from 104 herds located throughout Iowa were tested for antibodies against encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv) by use of the microtitration serum neutralization test. The sample was composed of 587 sows and gilts and 2,027 finishing swine. A statistically significant (P < 0.002) difference was observed between prevalence in sows and gilts (17.2%) and that in finishing swine (12.2%). Breeding swine maintained in total confinement (20.5%) had significantly (P = 0.04) higher prevalence than did breeders maintained in other types of housing (12.1%), whereas prevalence in finishing swine raised in total confinement (6.4%) was significantly (P = 0.02) lower that in finishers not raised in total confinement (13.6%). Association was not detected between prevalence and herd size or between prevalence and season of the year. Adjusting for test specificity and sensitivity, the true prevalence of emcv infection in swine in Iowa was estimated to be 13.8% in breeding stock and 8.5% in finishing swine. On a herd basis, 89.4% (93/104) of the herds had one or more emcv-positive swine.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Latency and reactivation of pseudorabies virus in swine was studied. Thirty-one pigs were assigned to 5 groups and were given 1 of 4 vaccines; 10 remained unvaccinated controls. All pigs were then challenge exposed with a sublethal dose of virulent pseudorabies virus. One hundred one days after challenge exposure, all pigs were treated with dexamethasone to reactivate the virus. Virus-positive tonsil and nasal mucus isolates were recovered from 29 of the 31 pigs over a 12-day period. Frequency and duration of virus-positivity were significantly (P < 0.05) and consistently lower among vaccinated pigs than among the unvaccinated controls. It was concluded that vaccination before challenge exposure had little or no effect on the rate of establishment of virus latency, but that vaccination reduced shedding after subsequent reactivation of the virus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

On the basis of serologic test results and isolation of leptospires from mature cattle, distribution and prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovars and genotypes were compared by state and region of the United States. Relationships between isolation rate and month of sample collection, mean regional temperature, and mean regional precipitation were examined. Isolation rate and seroprevalence were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for southeastern, south central, and Pacific coastal regions than for other regions of the United States. Isolates of genotypes hardjo-bovis A and kennewicki A and B, and of serovar grippotyphosa appeared to be randomly distributed. Genotype hardjo-bovis B isolates came from a southern area of the country that extends from Georgia to New Mexico. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first recorded isolation of serovar hardjo from Hawaii. Although significant relationship was not documented between isolation rate and month or season of the year, seroprevalence for summer, fall, and winter was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that for spring. Regional isolation rate was related more to mean temperature (r = 0.83; P < 0.05) than to mean precipitation amount (r = 0.34; P > 0.50).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The survival of pseudorabies virus in an aerosol was studied under different environmental conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Pseudorabies virus decayed logarithmically with mean half-lives of 17.4 (85% relative humidity, 22 C), 18.8 (25% relative humidity, 22 C), 27.3 (85% relative humidity, 4 C), 36.1 (55% relative humidity, 22 C), and 43.6 (55% relative humidity, 4 C) minutes. Virus survival was significantly improved in environments at 55% relative humidity, compared with those at 85% relative humidity (P = 0.017). Rates of survival were improved in environment at 4 C in comparison with those at 22 C. Results suggest that, under the best conditions of this study, the infectivity of pseudorabies virus in an aerosol decreases by 50% in < 1 hour.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Because of the importance of environmental survival of pseudorabies virus to proposals to eradicate the virus from swine in the United States, survival of the virus was studied in various diluents and on combinations of diluents and solid fomites at 25 C. Suspensions of the virus in phosphate-buffered saline and saline G solutions remained infectious for at least 10 days. Infectivity of other virus/diluent suspensions decreased to <10 plaque-forming units/ml in 14 days (swine urine), 7 days (well water), 4 days (swine saliva), 2 days (lagoon water and swine nasal washings), and 1 day (swine pit effluent, chlorinated water, and bile). Suspensions of pseudorabies virus in saline G solution and on the solid fomites, whole corn, and steel remained infectious for at least 7 days. Infectivity of other virus/diluent/fomite combinations decreased to <10 plaque-forming units/ml in 7 days. The role of the fomites as vehicles for transmission of infection is discussed.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association