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  • Author or Editor: George P. McCabe x
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Objective—To test the hypotheses that the densities of macrophages in the synovial membranes and capsules of stifle joints in dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments are greater than those of normal joints and that those densities in affected joints are positively correlated with the chronicity and severity of the disease.

Animals—17 dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and 5 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs underwent orthopedic and radiographic evaluations. In affected dogs, duration of clinical signs was used as an indicator of disease chronicity and the severity of osteoarthritis in the stifle joint was determined radiographically. Joint capsule specimens were evaluated histologically; macrophages, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were identified by use of immunocytochemical techniques.

Results—Compared with unaffected joints, macrophage density was increased in all affected joints. Duration of disease was significantly associated with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis and synovial macrophage density. Synovial macrophage density was significantly associated with severity of osteoarthritis and with the presence of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial macrophages may be involved in the development of pathologic changes (including osteophyte formation) in the stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Determination of the importance of synovial macrophages in the development of changes in osteoarthritic joints may result in new treatment strategies that involve elimination of the deleterious effects of those cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:493–499)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the effects of disk fenestration and ventral slot formation on vertebral motion unit (VMU) range of motion (ROM) and determine the effects of fenestration and ventral slot width on VMU ROM.

Sample Population—C5-C6 VMUs from 10 skeletally mature canine cadavers.

Procedures—Specimens were assigned to 2 groups (5 specimens/group). Surgery was performed in which width of a fenestration and a ventral slot was 33% (group 1) or 50% (group 2) the width of the vertebral body. Flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion ROMs were measured during loading before surgery, after fenestration, and after ventral slot formation. Range of motion was compared within groups to determine effects of surgical procedure on stability and between groups to determine effects of width of fenestration and ventral slot on stability.

Results—For both groups, fenestration resulted in a significant increase in ROM during flexion-extension, compared with results for intact specimens. Ventral slot formation resulted in a significant increase in ROM during flexion-extension and lateral bending, compared with results for intact specimens. Ventral slot formation resulted in a significant increase in ROM only during flexion-extension, compared with results for fenestrated specimens. There were no significant differences in ROM of the intact, fenestrated, and ventral slot specimens between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of these results suggests that fenestration and ventral slot procedures each affect the biomechanics of the C5-C6 VMU. Width of a fenestration or ventral slot up to 50% of the width of C5-C6 may be clinically acceptable.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and histologic abnormalities in adult cats > 1 year old with spontaneous (ie, nontraumatic) femoral capital physeal fractures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—26 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats > 1 year old with femoral capital physeal fractures and no history of trauma were examined.

Results—Mean ± SD age of the cats was 22.5 ± 6.5 months. Twenty-five cats were neutered males. Mean weight of the cats was significantly greater than mean weight of a group of age- and sex-matched control cats. Of 16 cats for which age at the time of neutering was known, 14 had been neutered before 6 months of age. Nine cats had bilateral fractures. Severity of femoral neck osteolysis and sclerosis increased with increased duration of clinical signs. The contralateral femoral capital physis, distal femoral physes, and proximal tibial physes were radiographically open in 13 of 18, 19 of 24, and 24 of 24 cats, respectively. Histologically, the epiphysis contained normal articular cartilage and bone, but attached growth plate cartilage lacked the normal columnar arrangement of chondrocytes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that adult cats with spontaneous femoral capital physeal fractures were most likely to be heavier, neutered males with delayed physeal closure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1731–1736)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association