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SUMMARY

Prednisone was administered orally for 4 weeks at a dosage of 1.1 mg/kg of body weight/d, in divided dose every 12 hours, to a group of healthy adult dogs (n = 12). Intravenous glucose tolerance testing was performed before and after the 28-day regimen in each dog, as well as in dogs of a control group (n = 6). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by measurement of preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, total insulin secretion, and fractional clearance of glucose.

Mean preprandial plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were not increased after the 4-week regimen of prednisone. Total insulin secretion in response to an IV administered glucose load was not increased in treated dogs, compared with pretreatment values or with values for control dogs. The fractional clearance of glucose was also not altered in dogs given prednisone. Results indicate that anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone, given orally for 4 weeks, probably do not alter insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance in clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, EDTA, 3 tetracyclines, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for collagenase inhibition in an in vitro corneal degradation model.

SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs and horses and fresh serum from healthy dogs and horses.

PROCEDURES Serum was pooled by species for in vitro use. For each species, sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated with clostridial collagenase (800 U/mL) in 5 mL of a 5mM calcium chloride-saline (0.9% NaCl) incubation solution and 500 μL of 1 of 19 treatments (homologous serum; 0.3%, 1.0%, or 2% EDTA; 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline; 0.5%, 1.0%, or 5.0% NAC; serum with 0.5% tetracycline; serum with 1.0% EDTA; or 1.0% EDTA with 0.5% tetracycline). Positive and negative control specimens were incubated with 5 mL of incubation solution with and without collagenase, respectively. Each control and treatment was replicated 4 times for each species. Following incubation, corneal specimens were dried and reweighed. The percentage corneal degradation was calculated and compared among treatments within each species.

RESULTS Treatments with tetracyclines at concentrations ≥ 0.5%, with EDTA at concentrations ≥ 0.3%, and with NAC at concentrations ≥ 0.5% were more effective at preventing corneal degradation than serum in both species. The efficacy of each combination treatment was equal to or less than that of its components.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested EDTA, tetracyclines, and NAC may be beneficial for topical treatment of keratomalacia, but in vivo studies are required.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To calculate the monthly incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a population of military working dogs during a 5-year period and determine whether there was an association with synoptic climatologic indices.

Sample Population—Medical records of all military working dogs housed at Lackland Air Force Base,Tex, from Jan 1, 1993 to Dec 31, 1997.

Procedure—Confirmed cases of GDV were identified from evaluation of medical records and used to calculate incidence of GDV. Factor analysis of local climatologic data was used to classify each day into 1 of 8 meteorologically homogeneous types of days for this location. Occurrence of GDV was compared with frequency of occurrence of synoptic climatologic days.

Results—48 cases of GDV were identified from January 1993 through December 1997. Mean monthly incidence was 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs at risk (range, 0 to 18.5 cases/1,000 dogs; median, 2.5 cases/1,000 dogs). A seasonal increase in incidence of GDV was detected, because half of the episodes were during November, December, and January. An association with a specific synoptic climatologic day was not detected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Seasonal fluctuations in incidence of GDV may be associated with external factors that precipitate physiologic changes resulting in GDV. Although a specific cause-effect relationship was not documented, clinicians must be alert for the potential of seasonal variation in incidence of GDV and accordingly heighten their index of suspicion for the condition, particularly in populations of dogs that are predisposed to development of GDV. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:47–52)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether joint lavage performed simultaneously with IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) reduces the effectiveness of IVRLP and to compare 2 types of tourniquets used for this procedure in horses.

Animals—11 adult horses.

Procedures—2 groups of 6 horses were tested by use of a pneumatic or an Esmarch tourniquet (1 horse was tested twice [once in each group]). Standing IVRLP with amikacin (500 mg) was performed for 30 minutes. Simultaneously, the metacarpophalangeal joint was lavaged with 2 L of lactated Ringer's solution and the egress fluids were collected. Samples of the distal interphalangeal joint synovial fluid and blood from the digital and jugular veins were collected at set time intervals. Amikacin concentrations in all fluids were determined via fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

Results—Less amikacin was measured in the systemic circulation with the Esmarch tourniquet than with the pneumatic tourniquet. Amikacin concentrations in the synovial fluid from the distal interphalangeal joints of the Esmarch tourniquet group ranged from 45.1 to 1,968 μg/mL and in the pneumatic tourniquet group ranged from 1.7 to 92.3 μg/mL after 30 minutes of IVRLP. Total loss of amikacin in the egress fluids from the joint lavage ranged from < 1.36 to 7.72 mg for the Esmarch tourniquet group and from < 1.20 to 1.75 mg for the pneumatic tourniquet group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On standing horses, IVRLP performed simultaneously with joint lavage resulted in negligible loss of amikacin in the egress lavage fluids. The Esmarch tourniquet was more effective in preventing loss of amikacin from the distal portion of the limb, easier to use, and less expensive than the pneumatic tourniquet.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-strand suture repairs on the biomechanical properties of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model.

SAMPLE

56 cadaveric gastrocnemius musculotendinous units from 28 adult large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were randomly assigned to 4 repair groups (2-, 4-, 6- or 8-strand suture technique; n = 14/group). Following tenotomy, repairs were performed with the assigned number of strands of 2-0 polypropylene suture in a simple interrupted pattern. Biomechanical testing was performed. Yield, peak, and failure loads, the incidence of 1- and 3-mm gap formation, forces associated with gap formation, and failure modes were compared among groups.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly among groups, with significantly greater force required as the number of suture strands used for tendon repair increased. The force required to create a 1- or 3-mm gap between tendon ends also differed among groups and increased significantly with number of strands used. All constructs failed by mode of suture pull-through.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that increasing the number of suture strands crossing the repair site significantly increases the tensile strength of canine gastrocnemius tendon repair constructs and their resistance to gap formation. Future studies are needed to assess the effects of multistrand suture patterns on tendon glide function, blood supply, healing, and long-term clinical function in dogs to inform clinical decision-making.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of presurgical storage conditions on leakage pressures of enterotomy sites closed with unidirectional barbed suture material in fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed cadaveric canine jejunal specimens.

SAMPLE

36 grossly normal jejunal segments obtained from 4 dog cadavers.

PROCEDURES

9 jejunal segments were harvested immediately from each euthanized dog and randomly assigned to be tested within 4 hours after collection (fresh segments), stored at 4°C for 24 hours before testing (chilled segments), or stored at −20°C for 7 days and thawed at 21°C for 6 hours before testing (frozen-thawed segments). For leakage pressure testing, a 3-cm-long antimesenteric enterotomy was performed and repaired with 3-0 unidirectional barbed suture material in a simple continuous pattern in each segment. Time to complete the enterotomy, initial leakage pressure, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location were recorded for each segment.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD initial leakage pressure for fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed segments was 52.8 ± 14.9 mm Hg, 51.8 ± 11.9 mm Hg, and 33.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg, respectively. Frozen-thawed segments had significantly lower mean initial leakage pressure, compared with findings for fresh or chilled segments. Time to complete the enterotomy, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location did not differ among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leak pressure testing of cadaveric jejunal segments that are fresh or chilled at 4°C for 24 hours is recommended for enterotomy studies involving barbed suture material in dogs. Freezing and thawing of cadaveric jejunal tissues prior to investigative use is not recommended because leak pressure data may be falsely low.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Animals—1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.

Procedures—Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results—2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs < 0.5 years old had higher odds of Toxocara and Ancylostoma parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate reproductive performance and productive longevity of dairy cows treated for left displaced abomasum (LDA) with 1 of 2 surgical techniques (omentopexy vs pyloro-omentopexy).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 87 Holstein cows that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy for LDA during a 5-year period.

PROCEDURES For each cow with LDA, the most recent date of calving, age at time of surgery, and surgical procedure were recorded. Dairy records of cows treated for LDA in the 5-year period were reviewed to determine their reproductive performance. Records available for up to 4 years after the last surgery (ie, when all treated cows had left the herd) were reviewed to determine cull dates and reasons for treated and untreated cows in the herd.

RESULTS Of the 87 cows with LDA, 58 underwent pyloro-omentopexy and 29 underwent omentopexy. Cows in the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ in age. Fifty-six cows completed > 1 subsequent lactation cycle after surgery. The median time that cows with LDA remained in the herd was 566 days (range, 24 to 1,838 days); the times for the 2 treatment groups did not significantly differ. For treated and untreated cows, cull rates for reproductive failure or other problems were similar. Four (14%) omentopexy–treated cows and no pyloro-omentopexy–treated cows had a reoccurrence of LDA.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that cows with LDA that underwent omentopexy or pyloro-omentopexy had similar cull rates and reasons as unaffected herd mates over their productive time in the herd. Between the 2 treatment groups, only the LDA reoccurrence rate differed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association