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- Author or Editor: George E. Lees x
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OBJECTIVE To identify factors affecting the diagnostic quality of core needle renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 522 client-owned dogs with suspected kidney disease for which core needle renal biopsy specimens (n = 1,089) were submitted to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service for evaluation and inclusion in their database.
PROCEDURES Data regarding dog signalment, clinical variables, biopsy method, needle brand and gauge, biopsy results, and other variables were extracted from the database. Variables were tested for association with 3 outcomes of light microscopic evaluation of core specimens: number of glomeruli per core specimen, obtainment of < 10 glomeruli, and presence or absence of renal medullary tissue.
RESULTS Number of glomeruli per core specimen was significantly associated with needle gauge, dog age, serum creatinine concentration, and degree of proteinuria, whereas biopsy method and submitting hospital were significantly associated with the presence of renal medullary tissue in specimens. Mean numbers of glomeruli per core specimen obtained with 14- or 16-gauge needles were similar, but both were significantly greater than the mean number obtained with 18-gauge needles. Needle gauge had a similar association with the likelihood of obtaining < 10 glomeruli in a core specimen. Specimens obtained via laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches more commonly contained medullary tissue than those obtained by ultrasound-guided approaches.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, findings suggested that ultrasound-guided biopsy with a 16-gauge needle should maximize the diagnostic quality of renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease, while avoiding potential adverse effects caused by larger needles.
Objective—To evaluate expression of the α6 chain of type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of healthy dogs.
Sample Population—Kidney specimens from 12 healthy dogs. For comparison, kidney specimens from 8 human subjects between 25 and 83 years old also were evaluated.
Procedure—Sections were immunolabeled with a monospecific antibody that cross-reacts with human and canine α6(IV) chains and examined by means of fluorescence microscopy.
Results—Immunolabeling of the α6(IV) chain was not observed in GBM of 6 dogs ≤ 30 months old but was observed in GBM of the remaining 6 dogs, all of which were ≥ 45 months old. Expression of the α6(IV) chain was not observed in GBM of the human subjects, regardless of the age of the subject.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that the α6(IV) chain is expressed in GBM of healthy dogs, but the expression is age-dependent. Composition and structural organization of type IV collagen in the GBM of healthy adult dogs is different from that described for other species. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:38–41)
Objective—To evaluate stability of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in serum samples and to determine the effect of long-term administration of prednisone on serum cPLI concentrations.
Sample Population—8 canine serum samples for the stability evaluation and serum samples obtained from 6 healthy young adult heterozygous (carrier) dogs with X-linked hereditary nephritis for determining the effect of prednisone administration.
Procedures—To evaluate stability of serum cPLI concentration, an aliquot of each serum sample was stored at each of 4 temperatures between −80° and 24°C; samples were analyzed on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21. To determine the effect of long-term prednisone administration, pretreatment serum samples were obtained (days 0 and 14) and prednisone was administered (2.2 mg/kg, q 24 h, PO) on days 15 through 42, with serum samples obtained on days 28 and 42. Additional serum samples were obtained on days 56 and 70.
Results—Mean serum cPLI concentrations did not change significantly from day 0 to day 21 regardless of storage temperature. Serum cPLI concentrations in dogs after prednisone administration were within the reference range for all dogs at all time points, and results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that serum cPLI concentrations did not change significantly over time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum cPLI concentrations measured in canine serum samples stored at room temperature, in a refrigerator, or in a freezer at −20° or −80°C were stable for at least 21 days. Also, long-term prednisone administration to dogs did not significantly affect serum cPLI concentrations.
Objective—To evaluate perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibody (pANCA) status in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) and SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs and to correlate pANCA status of dogs with clinicopathologic variables of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.
Animals—13 SCWTs and 8 SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs in a research colony and a control group comprising 7 dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy and 12 healthy SCWTs > 9 years old.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from dogs in the research colony every 6 months. At each sample-collection time point, serum concentrations of albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen; fecal concentration of α-proteinase inhibitor; and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios were determined and correlated with pANCA status.
Results—20 of 21 dogs in the research colony had positive results for pANCAs at a minimum of 2 time points, and 18 of 21 dogs had definitive evidence of disease. None of the control dogs had positive results for pANCAs. A positive result for pANCAs was significantly associated with hypoalbuminemia, and pANCAs preceded the onset of hypoalbuminemia on an average of 2.4 years. Sensitivity and specificity for use of pANCAs to predict development of PLE or PLN were 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.00) and 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.95), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs in this study affected with PLE, PLN, or both had positive results for pANCAs before clinicopathologic evidence of disease was detected. Thus, pANCAs may be useful as an early noninvasive test of disease in SCWTs.