A 4-year-old 31-kg (68.2-lb) sexually intact female German Shepherd Dog was evaluated for acute lethargy and anorexia. The dog was laterally recumbent and stuporous. Abnormalities detected on physical examination included pale mucous membranes, increased capillary refill time, dehydration, tachycardia, and tachypnea with increased respiratory effort. Marked hypotension was detected during evaluation of blood pressure. The abdomen was distended and tense, and palpation elicited signs of discomfort. Results of serum biochemical analyses indicated hyperphosphotemia (15.9 mg/dL; reference range, 2.5 to 6.8 mg/dL) and increased concentrations of BUN (130.0 mg/dL; reference range, 7.0 to 27.0 mg/dL) and creatinine (8.65 mg/dL; reference
Objective—To compare and validate goniometric joint measurements obtained from nonsedated and sedated cats with measurements from radiographic evaluation.
Animals—20 adult cats with no evidence of joint disease.
Procedures—Measurements of flexion and extension of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints and of carpal and tarsal joints during varus and valgus angulation were made by a single investigator before and after sedation of cats. Measurements were made by use of a goniometer with a masked dial. Joint angle measurements were compared between nonsedated and sedated cats and also with measurements from radiographs made while cats were sedated. Each series of measurements was repeated 4 times. To evaluate repeatability, Cronbach α values were calculated for repeated measure results of goniometric joint measurements of nonsedated and sedated cats. An intraclass correlation was calculated to determine reliability among the 3 measurement types (ie, measurements from nonsedated and sedated cats and on radiographic evaluation).
Results—Joint measurements did not differ significantly by measurement type, when comparing radiographic measurements with goniometric measurements in sedated and nonsedated cats. Cronbach α values were > 0.99 for goniometric joint measurements within individual nonsedated and sedated cats and also for comparison of mean meaurements obtained from sedated cats versus nonsedated cats versus radiographs. An intraclass correlation of 0.999 revealed high reliability among measurement types.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that goniometric joint measurements in nonsedated and sedated cats are repeatable and valid.
Objectives—To describe placement of hinged transarticular
external fixation (HTEF) frames and evaluate
their ability to protect the primary repair of unstable
joints while allowing joint mobility in dogs and cats.
Animals—8 cats and 6 dogs.
Procedure—HTEF frames were composed of metal
or epoxy connecting rods and a hinge. Measurements
of range of motion of affected and contralateral joints
and radiographs were made after fixator application
Results—9 animals (4 cats and 5 dogs) had tarsal and
5 (4 cats and 1 dog) had stifle joint injuries. Treatment
duration ranged from 45 to 100 days (median, 57
days). Ranges of motion in affected stifle and tarsal
joints were 57% and 72% of control while HTEF was
in place and 79% and 84% of control after frame
removal. Complications were encountered in 3 cats
and 2 dogs and included breakage of pins and connecting
rods, hinge loosening, and failure at the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HTEF in animals
with traumatic joint instability provided adjunctive
joint stabilization during healing and protection of
the primary repair and maintained joint motion during
healing, resulting in early weight bearing of the affected
limb. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:586–591)