OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dipyrone to control pyrexia in horses with naturally occurring disease under field conditions.
ANIMALS 138 horses with pyrexia and various infections evaluated at 14 veterinary sites in 12 states.
PROCEDURES In the first (effectiveness) phase of this 2-phase study, horses were randomly assigned 3:1 to receive 1 dose of dipyrone (30 mg/kg [13.6 mg/lb], IV) or an equivalent amount of placebo. Effectiveness was defined as a decrease in rectal temperature ≥ 1.1°C (2°F), compared with the pretreatment value, or a rectal temperature of ≤ 38.3°C (101.0°F) 6 hours after treatment administration. Horses deemed to have an appropriate reduction in rectal temperature (regardless of treatment group) by 6 hours were immediately entered into the safety phase of the study, in which dipyrone was administered IV at 30 mg/kg between 0 and 8 times up to every 8 hours on an as-needed basis, as determined by the clinical investigators. Horses were monitored throughout for adverse events.
RESULTS A significantly greater proportion of dipyrone-treated horses (76/99 [77%]) had an effective treatment response than did placebo-treated horses (6/31 [19%]). Posttreatment adverse events were mild and transient. No differences in types or prevalence of gastrointestinal adverse events were evident between treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dipyrone was effective in controlling pyrexia by 6 hours after IV administration of a single 30-mg/kg dose in a large proportion of treated horses. Adverse effects were minimal.
Animals—102 horses with normal-appearing gastric mucosa on endoscopic examination that were in light to heavy training.
Procedures—Horses at 4 trial locations were allocated into replicates and sham dosed orally (empty syringe) or treated with a paste formulation of omeprazole (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/ lb], PO) once daily for 8 days. Training regimens varied among locations and included early training for western performance events; walking, trotting, and cantering in a mechanical exerciser; and race training (2 locations). Prevalences of gastric ulceration at the completion of the 8-day treatment period were compared between groups.
Results—At the end of the 8-day treatment period, the proportion of omeprazole-treated horses free from gastric ulceration (88%) was significantly higher than the proportion of sham-dosed horses free from gastric ulceration (27%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results showed that horses in light to heavy training for as short as 8 days were at risk of developing gastric ulcers and that administration of omeprazole paste decreased the incidence of gastric ulcers.
Objective—To determine whether sublingual detomidine gel administration to horses would be effective in providing an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures under field conditions.
Animals—270 client-owned horses known to require sedation or strong restraint to enable veterinary and husbandry procedures to be performed.
Procedures—Horses randomly received a single dose of detomidine gel (0.04 mg/kg [0.018 mg/lb]) or placebo gel administered sublingually. Horses were sedated to facilitate cleaning the prepuce, cutting of hair with electric clippers, hoof trimming or application of shoes, manual dental floating (ie, rasping or filing of the teeth to remove irregularities), nasogastric passage of a stomach tube or endoscope, and radiography. The primary determinant of efficacy was an assessment by a veterinarian on the ability or inability to successfully conduct the procedure.
Results—171 horses met all the study protocol criteria. One hundred twenty-nine horses were treated with detomidine. The procedure was completed successfully for 76% (98/129) of the detomidine-treated horses, while the procedure was completed successfully for only 7% (3/42) of the placebo-treated horses. The percentage of horses in which the procedure was successfully completed was significantly different between detomidine-treated horses and placebo-treated horses. No serious adverse effects were reported.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detomidine gel administered to horses sublingually at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg provided an appropriate degree of sedation and restraint to facilitate completion of veterinary and husbandry procedures in horses known to require sedation for such procedures.
Objective—To determine whether omeprazole oral
paste administered at a dosage of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg
(0.23 or 0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours would effectively
prevent the recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses
in race training.
Procedures—Horses with gastric ulcers were treated
with omeprazole at a dosage of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb),
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days. Horses in the dose
selection portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 0.5 or 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Horses in
the dose confirmation portion of the study were sham
dose treated or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for an additional 28 days. Gastric
ulcers were scored before and after the preventive
phase of the study (day 28 to day 56) via gastroscopy,
and ulcer scores were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses and horses
receiving 0.5 mg of omeprazole/kg had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg. There was a significant difference
between the proportion of horses receiving 1 mg of
omeprazole/kg (38/48 [79%]) that remained ulcer free
and the proportion of sham–dose-treated horses
(7/44 [16%]) that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Omeprazole
oral paste administered at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 28 days was effective for prevention
of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses in race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1685–1688)
Objective—To determine the minimal effective
dosage of omeprazole oral paste for the prevention of
naturally occurring ulcers in horses starting race training.
Procedure—Horses in the dose selection portion of
the study were sham dose treated or received 1 mg
(0.45 mg/lb) or 2 mg (0.9 mg/lb) of omeprazole/kg,
PO, every 24 hours for 28 days or 4 mg of omeprazole/
kg (1.8 mg/lb; loading dose), PO, every 24 hours
for 4 days, then 1 or 2 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO,
every 24 hours for 24 days. Horses in the dose confirmation
portion of the study were sham dose treated
or received 1 mg of omeprazole/kg, PO, every 24
hours for 28 days. Gastric ulcer scores at the beginning
and end of the study were compared.
Results—Sham–dose-treated horses had significantly
higher ulcer scores than did horses treated with any
of the omeprazole dosages evaluated. Among horses
treated with omeprazole, there was no significant
interaction of dose (1 or 2 mg/kg) and loading dose;
therefore, the lowest effective dose (1 mg/kg) was
evaluated in the dose confirmation portion of the
study. In the dose confirmation study, 4 of 39 (10%)
sham–dose-treated horses remained ulcer free,
which was significantly different from the proportion
of horses (31/38 [82%]) receiving 1 mg of omeprazole/
kg that remained ulcer free.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that omeprazole administered at a dosage of
1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 28 days was effective
for prevention of gastric ulcers in horses starting race
training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1681–1684)
Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.
Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.
Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.
Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.
Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.