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Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Unmatched case-control study.

Study population—207 animal caregivers.

Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver that reported being bitten by a dog or cat. Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers, characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered questionnaires.

Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages indicating the potential to bite or that were considered difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had characteristics traditionally associated with biting or were considered likely to bite were muzzled.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling dogs and cats should be considered more frequently. Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling, should be taken if the medical condition or conformation of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A fully age-structured deterministic model of the population biology of a pseudorabies epizootic in a farrow-tofinish operation was used to examine the disease-related change in productivity following the initial disease episode. A strategy involving continual sow vaccination was compared with various strategies involving the vaccination of growing pigs, as well as sows. The model suggests that vaccinating growing pigs, in addition to the breeding herd, results in only a relatively small improvement in long-term productivity fol lowing a pseudorabies epizootic.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A deterministic mathematical model of the population biology of pseudorabies in swine was used to clarify some of the basic features of the host-virus relationship and to inquire into the circumstances that promote or impede virus persistence in a single herd. When the basic reproductive rate of the infection (ie, the number of secondary infections resulting from the introduction of a single infective animal into a wholly susceptible herd) is greater than unity, the model suggests that the number of infective individuals in the herd will undergo highly damped oscillations to a final equilibrium level. The most important determinants of virus persistence are herd size and the density at which sows are maintained. There is a threshold density of susceptible individuals below which the virus will eventually be eliminated from the herd, even when specific control measures are lacking. Test and removal strategies hasten virus elimination when herd density is already below threshold, but are otherwise likely to succeed only when the removal of latent infections reduces the basic reproductive rate of the infection below unity. Vaccination strategies may also result in virus elimination, but only in relatively small herds.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis in hospitalized horses.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100 control horses.

Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998 were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis. Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis during admission or hospitalization were chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic findings, primary illness, and treatment were obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis. For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 16 times those for a similar horse in the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4 times those for a similar horse without large intestinal disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 31 times those for a similar horse not receiving these medications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that patient factors, including large intestinal disease, hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia, were associated with development of catheter-associated thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine time to first detection of Salmonella organisms in feces of animals after experimental infection PO and times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to evaluate a common method for identifying nosocomial infections on the basis of time of admission and onset of clinical signs (ie, the 3-day criterion).

Design—Meta-analysis.

Sample Population—Cattle, horses, goats, and sheep experimentally infected PO with Salmonella enterica subsp enterica.

Procedures—Online databases were searched for published reports describing results of experimental infection of cattle, horses, goats, and sheep PO with salmonellae. Time to detection of organisms in feces as well as to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia was noted. Analysis of covariance was used to examine relationships among these variables, host species and age, and Salmonella serovar and magnitude of infecting dose.

Results—Forty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. Time to detection of salmonellae in feces ranged from 0.5 to 4 days. Times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia ranged from 0.33 to 11 days and from 0.27 to 5 days, respectively. Time to onset of diarrhea was related to host age and Salmonella serovar. No other associations were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Time to detection of salmonellae in feces is unreliable for identifying hospital-acquired infections; a 3-day criterion will misidentify hospital- versus community-acquired infections. Relying on clinical indices such as times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to trigger fecal sampling for detection of Salmonella infection will increase the risk of environmental contamination and nosocomial spread because animals may begin shedding organisms in feces several days prior.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Twenty-two Dorset Rambouillet lambs were moved to contaminated pasture on Apr 1, 1987. At regular intervals thereafter, pairs of lambs were withdrawn and euthanatized. Gastrointestinal parasites in the abomasum, small intestine, cecum, and large intestine were removed and counted. The last pair of lambs was euthanatized 8 months after original placement on the contaminated pasture. Fecal samples were taken at 3- to 4-week intervals throughout the grazing season and the fecal egg counts were used to estimate parasite fecundity (output of eggs per female parasite per day). The principal parasite genera found included Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp, and Nematodirus spp. In each of the genera examined, parasite fecundity remained the same irrespective of the intensity or duration of infection. Estimated average fecundities (eggs/female/day) were as follows: Haemonchus contortus, 6,582; Trichostrongylus spp, 262; Nematodirus spp, 40; and Oesophagostomum venulosum, 11,098.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine application rate and effectiveness of sodium bisulfate to decrease the fly population in a horse barn environment.

Sample Population—12 privately owned farms in southeastern Pennsylvania.

Procedure—Application rates of sodium bisulfate were approximately 2.3 kg/stall, 1.1 kg/stall, and 0.5 kg/stall. Two or 3 stalls were treated, and 1 or 2 stalls were not treated (control stalls) at each farm. Farm personnel applied sodium bisulfate in treated stalls daily for 7 days. Fly tapes were hung from the same site in treated and control stalls. After 24 hours, the fly tape was removed, flies adhering to the sticky surface were counted and recorded, and a new fly tape was hung. This procedure was repeated daily during each of the testing periods.

Results—Following the application of 2.3 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, the numbers of flies collected on the fly tape were significantly decreased in treated stalls, compared with control stalls during the same time periods on 9 of the 12 farms evaluated. Following the application of 1.1 kg of sodium bisulfate/ stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in treated stalls on 6 of the 9 farms evaluated. Following the application of 0.5 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in the treated stalls on 3 of the 4 farms evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings suggest that sodium bisulfate would be effective for fly control in horse barns. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:910–913)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 in a group of pet dogs that participate in flyball in Pennsylvania.

Design—Serologic survey.

Animals—Dogs attending a flyball tournament in Downingtown, Pa, from November 13 to 14, 2009.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from dogs following owner consent. Medical, travel, and activity history of the dogs for the previous 10.5 months was obtained from owners. Serum was harvested and submitted to Cornell University Diagnostic Laboratory for measurement of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 via hemagglutination inhibition testing.

Results—Serum samples were obtained from 100 of 256 dogs participating in the flyball event. Although 3 of the 100 (3%) samples had positive results for antibody against canine influenza, none of the associated dogs had respiratory signs of infection (eg, coughing, sneezing, or nasal or ocular discharge) in the 10.5 months prior to testing. Eleven dogs had a history of respiratory signs, but none of those dogs had antibody against canine influenza H3N8. In addition, none of the study dogs had been vaccinated against canine influenza H3N8.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although canine influenza is considered enzootic in certain areas of the country (eg, Pennsylvania or New York), this study identified a low seroprevalence in dogs considered at high risk for infection given their life conditions and geographic origins. More research is warranted to elucidate the prevalence of exposure to the H3N8 virus in competitive sporting dogs and determine whether vaccination is warranted in such dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with an increased likelihood that horses would have a serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—188 healthy client-owned horses.

Procedures—A single serum sample from each horse was tested for SeM-specific antibody titer with an ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with having a titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Results—Age, breed, and vaccination status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600. The odds of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600 increased by a factor of 1.07 with each 1-year increase in age. Quarter Horses and horses of other breeds were 4.08 times as likely as were Thoroughbreds and warmbloods to have a titer this high. Horses that had previously received an intranasal S equi vaccine were 4.7 times as likely as were horses without any history of vaccination to have a titer this high.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that older horses, horses other than Thoroughbreds and warmbloods, and horses that had been vaccinated with an attenuated-live intranasal S equi vaccine between 1 and 3 years previously had an increased likelihood of having a serum SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association