Objective—To identify factors associated with
increased risk of being bitten by a dog or cat in a veterinary
Design—Unmatched case-control study.
Study population—207 animal caregivers.
Procedure—Case subjects (n = 75) were any caregiver
that reported being bitten by a dog or cat.
Control subjects (n = 132) were randomly selected
from a list of all caregivers interacting with dogs or
cats. Information on the characteristics of the caregivers,
characteristics of the dogs and cats, and the
nature of the interaction between the dog or cat and
the caregiver was obtained by use of self-administered
Results—Caregivers were more likely to be bitten by
dogs or cats that had warning signs on their cages
indicating the potential to bite or that were considered
difficult to handle. Caregivers interacting with
cats or with older dogs and cats were more likely to
be bitten. Only 37 to 55% of dogs and cats that had
characteristics traditionally associated with biting or
were considered likely to bite were muzzled.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Muzzling
dogs and cats should be considered more frequently.
Dogs and cats considered to have the propensity to
bite frequently do bite, and precautions, such as muzzling,
should be taken if the medical condition or conformation
of the dog or cat is amenable to this type of
restraint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:312–316)
Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with
development of catheter-associated jugular thrombophlebitis
in hospitalized horses.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—50 horses with thrombophlebitis and 100
Procedure—Medical records from 1993 through 1998
were searched for horses with thrombophlebitis.
Horses that were hospitalized for at least 5 days, had an
IV catheter placed in a jugular vein (other than for solely
anesthetic purposes), and had no evidence of thrombophlebitis
during admission or hospitalization were
chosen as controls. Signalment, history, clinicopathologic
findings, primary illness, and treatment were
obtained from the medical records. Data were analyzed
by use of logistic regression to perform univariate and
Results—For a horse with endotoxemia, the odds of
developing thrombophlebitis were 18 times those for a
similar horse without endotoxemia. For a horse with salmonellosis,
the odds of developing thrombophlebitis
were 68 times those for a similar horse without salmonellosis.
For a horse with hypoproteinemia, the odds of
developing thrombophlebitis were almost 5 times those
for a similar horse without hypoproteinemia. For a horse
in the medicine section, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis
were 16 times those for a similar horse in
the surgery section. For a horse with large intestinal disease,
the odds of developing thrombophlebitis were 4
times those for a similar horse without large intestinal
disease. For a horse receiving antidiarrheal or antiulcerative
medications, the odds of developing thrombophlebitis
were 31 times those for a similar horse not
receiving these medications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that patient factors, including large intestinal disease,
hypoproteinemia, salmonellosis, and endotoxemia,
were associated with development of catheter-associated
thrombophlebitis in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1134–1141)
Objective—To determine time to first detection of Salmonella organisms in feces of animals after experimental infection PO and times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to evaluate a common method for identifying nosocomial infections on the basis of time of admission and onset of clinical signs (ie, the 3-day criterion).
Sample Population—Cattle, horses, goats, and sheep experimentally infected PO with Salmonella enterica subsp enterica.
Procedures—Online databases were searched for published reports describing results of experimental infection of cattle, horses, goats, and sheep PO with salmonellae. Time to detection of organisms in feces as well as to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia was noted. Analysis of covariance was used to examine relationships among these variables, host species and age, and Salmonella serovar and magnitude of infecting dose.
Results—Forty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. Time to detection of salmonellae in feces ranged from 0.5 to 4 days. Times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia ranged from 0.33 to 11 days and from 0.27 to 5 days, respectively. Time to onset of diarrhea was related to host age and Salmonella serovar. No other associations were identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Time to detection of salmonellae in feces is unreliable for identifying hospital-acquired infections; a 3-day criterion will misidentify hospital- versus community-acquired infections. Relying on clinical indices such as times to onset of diarrhea and pyrexia to trigger fecal sampling for detection of Salmonella infection will increase the risk of environmental contamination and nosocomial spread because animals may begin shedding organisms in feces several days prior.
Objective—To determine application rate and effectiveness
of sodium bisulfate to decrease the fly population
in a horse barn environment.
Sample Population—12 privately owned farms in
Procedure—Application rates of sodium bisulfate
were approximately 2.3 kg/stall, 1.1 kg/stall, and 0.5
kg/stall. Two or 3 stalls were treated, and 1 or 2 stalls
were not treated (control stalls) at each farm. Farm
personnel applied sodium bisulfate in treated stalls
daily for 7 days. Fly tapes were hung from the same
site in treated and control stalls. After 24 hours, the
fly tape was removed, flies adhering to the sticky surface
were counted and recorded, and a new fly tape
was hung. This procedure was repeated daily during
each of the testing periods.
Results—Following the application of 2.3 kg of sodium
bisulfate/stall, the numbers of flies collected on
the fly tape were significantly decreased in treated
stalls, compared with control stalls during the same
time periods on 9 of the 12 farms evaluated.
Following the application of 1.1 kg of sodium bisulfate/
stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in
treated stalls on 6 of the 9 farms evaluated. Following
the application of 0.5 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, fly
numbers were significantly decreased in the treated
stalls on 3 of the 4 farms evaluated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings
suggest that sodium bisulfate would be effective for
fly control in horse barns. (Am J Vet Res 2000;
Objective—To identify factors associated with an increased likelihood that horses would have a serum Streptococcus equi SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.
Animals—188 healthy client-owned horses.
Procedures—A single serum sample from each horse was tested for SeM-specific antibody titer with an ELISA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with having a titer ≥ 1:1,600.
Results—Age, breed, and vaccination status were significantly associated with the likelihood of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600. The odds of having a titer ≥ 1:1,600 increased by a factor of 1.07 with each 1-year increase in age. Quarter Horses and horses of other breeds were 4.08 times as likely as were Thoroughbreds and warmbloods to have a titer this high. Horses that had previously received an intranasal S equi vaccine were 4.7 times as likely as were horses without any history of vaccination to have a titer this high.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that older horses, horses other than Thoroughbreds and warmbloods, and horses that had been vaccinated with an attenuated-live intranasal S equi vaccine between 1 and 3 years previously had an increased likelihood of having a serum SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 1:1,600.
Objective—To determine the seroprevalence of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 in a group of pet dogs that participate in flyball in Pennsylvania.
Animals—Dogs attending a flyball tournament in Downingtown, Pa, from November 13 to 14, 2009.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from dogs following owner consent. Medical, travel, and activity history of the dogs for the previous 10.5 months was obtained from owners. Serum was harvested and submitted to Cornell University Diagnostic Laboratory for measurement of antibody against canine influenza virus H3N8 via hemagglutination inhibition testing.
Results—Serum samples were obtained from 100 of 256 dogs participating in the flyball event. Although 3 of the 100 (3%) samples had positive results for antibody against canine influenza, none of the associated dogs had respiratory signs of infection (eg, coughing, sneezing, or nasal or ocular discharge) in the 10.5 months prior to testing. Eleven dogs had a history of respiratory signs, but none of those dogs had antibody against canine influenza H3N8. In addition, none of the study dogs had been vaccinated against canine influenza H3N8.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although canine influenza is considered enzootic in certain areas of the country (eg, Pennsylvania or New York), this study identified a low seroprevalence in dogs considered at high risk for infection given their life conditions and geographic origins. More research is warranted to elucidate the prevalence of exposure to the H3N8 virus in competitive sporting dogs and determine whether vaccination is warranted in such dogs.
Objective—To determine the odds of moderate or
severe gastric ulceration in racehorses treated with
various antiulcer medications.
Design—Unmatched case-control study.
Animals—798 horses in active race training (252
Thoroughbreds and 546 Standardbreds). Only horses
that had been receiving a single antiulcer medication
or no antiulcer medication for at least 2 weeks prior to
examination were included.
Procedure—Gastroscopy was performed on each
horse by a single individual who was not aware of the
horses' antiulcer treatments, and severity of gastric
ulceration was scored. Signalment and medication
history were recorded. Logistic regression was used
to determine whether identification of moderate or
severe ulceration was associated with treatment,
age, breed, or sex. Treatments were grouped as no
treatment, buffer, sucralfate, histamine type 2 receptor
antagonist, compounded omeprazole, proprietary
omeprazole at a low dosage, and proprietary omeprazole
at a high dosage.
Results—Only proprietary omeprazole was associated
with significantly lower odds of moderate or
severe ulceration, compared with no treatment. Risks
of moderate or severe gastric ulceration in horses
receiving a buffer, sucralfate, a histamine type 2
receptor antagonist, or compounded omeprazole
were not significantly different from risks in horses
receiving no antiulcer medication.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the proprietary formulation of omeprazole
was associated with a significantly lower risk of moderate
or severe gastric ulceration, compared with no
treatment, in racehorses in active race training,
whereas other antiulcer medications were not. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:336–339)
Objective—To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella
bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser.
Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy.
Animals—450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves.
Procedure—Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated
once with a modified live S Choleraesuis (serogroup
C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were
vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a
Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin,
and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls.
One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first
80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome
assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella
spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth
(calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis
incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate.
Results—Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309
(99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding
frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and
calves that received colostrum from those cows,
compared with the other groups, and vaccination was
specifically associated with less shedding of
serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin
had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae,
whereas vaccination with a modified live
S Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of
fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during
the peripartum period. A commercial S Choleraesuis
vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious
than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on
dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:1897–1902)
Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.
Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.
Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.