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  • Author or Editor: Gary S. Ross x
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SUMMARY

In an attempt to identify important predictors of failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer (< 800 mg of IgG/dl), identify calves with failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer, and determine the effects of a colostrum supplement, blood samples were collected from 263 calves at postpartum hours 10 and 24. Calves of dams diagnosed with mastitis had lower mean plasma protein and IgG concentrations at 10 (P < 0.05) and 24 (P < 0.01) hours. Plasma protein and IgG concentrations were similar for single and twin calves at 10 hours, but IgG concentration at 24 hours was higher (P < 0.01) in twin calves. Calves born to dams that had dystocia had numerically lower mean plasma protein and IgG concentrations than did calves born to dams that had normal delivery. However, observed differences were small and, after adjustment for other important factors, these differences were not significant. Age of dam was associated with plasma protein (P < 0.05) and IgG (P < 0.10) concentrations at 10 hours, but had no effect at 24 hours. Plasma protein and IgG concentrations decreased as calves were born later in the calving season, although the association of birth date with IgG concentration at 24 hours was marginal (P = 0.07). Calf sex, dam body condition score, and birth weight were not related to plasma protein or IgG values. The sensitivity and specificity of a cutoff value of 4.8 g of protein/dl of plasma, measured at 10 hours, for diagnosing failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer at 10 hours were 78 and 94%, and for diagnosing failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer at 24 hours were 88 and 73%, respectively. A colostrum supplement administered to calves with low plasma protein concentration at 10 hours had no effect on plasma protein or IgG values at 24 hours or on pre-weaning morbidity and mortality.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Six steer calves, surgically fitted with a permanent cannula in the rumen, omasoabomasal orifice, abomasum, and duodenum were used to determine total digesta flow and volatile fatty acid (vfa) concentration at various points in the digestive tract. The omasoabomasal cannula had a flexible nylon sleeve that could be exteriorized through the abomasal cannula to collect omasal effluent.

Three experiments were conducted: 95% concentrate fed at maintenance (2,670 g of organic matter intake/d); 95% concentrate fed ad libitum (3,484 g of organic matter intake/d); and brome hay fed ad libitum (2,927 g of organic matter intake/d). Calves were offered the diet in 12 portions daily. Each experiment included a 14-day adaptation period and a 2-day sample collection period during which chromic oxide was used as a digesta flow marker. In all 3 experiments, vfa concentration was greatest in the rumen sample (84 to 109 mM), intermediate in the omasal sample (32 to 40 mM), and lowest in the duodenal sample (7 to 14 mM, P < 0.01). Total fluid flow at the duodenum was 13 to 18 L/d greater than flow at the omasum (P < 0.10). Omasal vfa flow was twofold greater than duodenal vfa flow (P < 0.05). There was a net fluid increase and net disappearance of vfa across the abomasum. The cannulation technique was useful for repeated collection of omasal effluent for at least 3 months.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infections resulting in clinical disease developed in calves, despite vaccination of dams and high maternal bvdv antibody titers in calves. Eight persistently injected (pi) calves born to immunocompetent dams were identified in the herd. Neutralizing bvdv antibody titers of pi calves had decreased greatly by the time the calves were 1 to 2 months old. Antibody titers of pi calves decreased more rapidly than antibody titers of calves that were not pi. Reduced antibody titers in pi calves allowed detection of bvdv in serum specimens of all pi calves by the time they were 8 weeks old. Persistent infection in suspect calves was detectable serologically and was confirmed by virologic examination of serum specimens 4 months after weaning, when the calves were 9 months old. Growth rates were reduced in viremic calves.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association