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To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of apomorphine for removal of gastric foreign bodies in dogs.


495 dogs with gastric foreign bodies.


Records of a veterinary hospital were searched to identify dogs that received an injectable formulation of apomorphine between January 1, 2010, and July 30, 2015. Dogs with a gastric foreign body that received an IV injection of apomorphine were included in the study. Information extracted from the record of each dog included signalment, type of foreign material ingested, duration between foreign material ingestion and emesis, dose and number of doses of apomorphine administered, and whether emesis occurred and did or did not result in successful removal of the foreign body. Descriptive data were compared between dogs with and without successful foreign body removal.


Emesis with successful foreign body removal was achieved in 363 and 11 dogs after administration of 1 and 2 doses of apomorphine, respectively. Successful removal was more likely for young dogs and dogs that had ingested fabric, leather, or bathroom waste. Successful removal was less likely as the duration between foreign body ingestion and emesis increased and for dogs that received opioids, sedatives, or antiemetics before apomorphine administration. Minor adverse effects were recorded for only 4 dogs.


IV administration of apomorphine was a viable alternative for induction of emesis and removal of gastric foreign bodies in dogs. Dogs should be examined as soon as possible after foreign body ingestion and should not receive any medications that might affect apomorphine efficacy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize lysosomal storage body accumulation in the retina and brain of Tibetan Terriers with ceroid-lipofuscinosis and determine whether the disease in these dogs is accompanied by impaired retinal function and retinal degeneration.

Animals—Three 7- to 10-year-old Tibetan Terriers with ceroid-lipofuscinosis and 1 healthy 5-year-old Tibetan Terrier.

Procedure—Owners completed a questionnaire to identify behavioral and physical signs indicative of ceroid-lipofuscinosis. Neurologic, behavioral, and ophthalmologic evaluations, including full-field electroretinograms, were performed on each dog. Fluorescence, light, and electron microscopy were performed on specimens of retina, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum of all dogs postmortem.

Results—Behavioral assessments of the affected dogs revealed moderate visual impairment in lowlight conditions but good vision in bright light. On funduscopic evaluation of these dogs, abnormalities detected ranged from none to signs of moderately advanced retinal degeneration. Compared with findings in the control dog, electroretinography revealed depressed rod cell function with some impairment of cone cell function in the affected dogs. Morphologically, disease-specific storage bodies were detected in retinal Müller cells and neurons, particularly in ganglion cells, and in cells of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum in affected dogs. Substantial photoreceptor cell loss and disruption of photoreceptor outer segment morphology appeared to develop late in the disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The similarities between ceroid-lipofuscinosis in Tibetan Terriers and some forms of ceroid-lipofuscinosis in humans suggest that the canine disease may have a genetic and biochemical basis similar to that of one of the ceroidlipofuscinosis disorders in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:67–76)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether the late onset form of inherited ceroid lipofuscinosis (CL) in Tibetan Terriers is accompanied by low plasma carnitine concentrations prior to the appearance of clinical signs.

Animals—129 healthy Tibetan Terriers, 12 Tibetan Terriers with CL, and 95 healthy purebred dogs of other breeds.

Procedure—After withholding food, blood samples were collected from all dogs into tubes containing EDTA. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma-free carnitine and acyl-carnitines concentrations.

Results—Neither the mean plasma total carnitine concentration nor the mean fraction of carnitine in the free form differed significantly between Tibetan Terriers with CL and healthy Tibetan Terriers. Among Tibetan Terriers and the general dog population, plasma carnitine concentration increased with age. Castrated males had an overall increase in plasma carnitine concentrations and variability, compared with sexually intact males. By comparison, plasma carnitine concentrations were not significantly different between spayed and sexually intact females. The mean plasma carnitine concentration in the Tibetan Terriers was approximately 22% higher than in the general population of healthy dogs of other breeds.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Contrary to what is seen in early onset CL in English Setters and in humans with some forms of CL, plasma carnitine concentrations are not decreased in the late-onset disorder in Tibetan Terriers. Our large-scale study establishes reference range values for plasma carnitine concentrations in dogs as functions of age and sex that will be useful in evaluating potential carnitine deficiencies in other disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:890–895)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical characteristics and mode of inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in English Springer Spaniels.

Design—Original study.

Animals—45 dogs with IE and 74 siblings and their respective parents.

Procedure—IE was diagnosed on the basis of age at the time of seizure onset and results of laboratory testing and neurologic examinations. Simple segregation analysis was performed with the Davie method.

Results—Median age at the onset of seizures was 3 years; however, 9 (20%) dogs were between 5 and 6 years old at the time of the onset of seizures. Twentyone dogs (47%) had generalized seizures, and 24 (53%) had focal onset seizures. Results of segregation analysis were consistent with partially penetrant autosomal recessive or polygenic inheritance. Simulated linkage indicated that there was a 58% chance of obtaining suggestive linkage with the available pedigrees.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggest that in English Springer Spaniels, IE segregates in a manner that is consistent with partially penetrant autosomal recessive inheritance (ie, a single major locus with modifying genes) or polygenic inheritance. Given enough families with accurate phenotypic information and available DNA, it should be possible to use genetic linkage analysis to identify chromosomal segments containing the causative gene or genes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:54–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association