To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of apomorphine for removal of gastric foreign bodies in dogs.
495 dogs with gastric foreign bodies.
Records of a veterinary hospital were searched to identify dogs that received an injectable formulation of apomorphine between January 1, 2010, and July 30, 2015. Dogs with a gastric foreign body that received an IV injection of apomorphine were included in the study. Information extracted from the record of each dog included signalment, type of foreign material ingested, duration between foreign material ingestion and emesis, dose and number of doses of apomorphine administered, and whether emesis occurred and did or did not result in successful removal of the foreign body. Descriptive data were compared between dogs with and without successful foreign body removal.
Emesis with successful foreign body removal was achieved in 363 and 11 dogs after administration of 1 and 2 doses of apomorphine, respectively. Successful removal was more likely for young dogs and dogs that had ingested fabric, leather, or bathroom waste. Successful removal was less likely as the duration between foreign body ingestion and emesis increased and for dogs that received opioids, sedatives, or antiemetics before apomorphine administration. Minor adverse effects were recorded for only 4 dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVLANCE
IV administration of apomorphine was a viable alternative for induction of emesis and removal of gastric foreign bodies in dogs. Dogs should be examined as soon as possible after foreign body ingestion and should not receive any medications that might affect apomorphine efficacy.
Objective—To characterize lysosomal storage body
accumulation in the retina and brain of Tibetan Terriers
with ceroid-lipofuscinosis and determine whether the
disease in these dogs is accompanied by impaired
retinal function and retinal degeneration.
Animals—Three 7- to 10-year-old Tibetan Terriers with
ceroid-lipofuscinosis and 1 healthy 5-year-old Tibetan
Procedure—Owners completed a questionnaire to
identify behavioral and physical signs indicative of
ceroid-lipofuscinosis. Neurologic, behavioral, and
ophthalmologic evaluations, including full-field electroretinograms,
were performed on each dog.
Fluorescence, light, and electron microscopy were
performed on specimens of retina, cerebral cortex,
and cerebellum of all dogs postmortem.
Results—Behavioral assessments of the affected
dogs revealed moderate visual impairment in lowlight
conditions but good vision in bright light. On
funduscopic evaluation of these dogs, abnormalities
detected ranged from none to signs of moderately
advanced retinal degeneration. Compared with findings
in the control dog, electroretinography revealed
depressed rod cell function with some impairment
of cone cell function in the affected dogs.
Morphologically, disease-specific storage bodies
were detected in retinal Müller cells and neurons,
particularly in ganglion cells, and in cells of the cerebral
cortex and cerebellum in affected dogs.
Substantial photoreceptor cell loss and disruption of
photoreceptor outer segment morphology appeared
to develop late in the disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The similarities
between ceroid-lipofuscinosis in Tibetan Terriers and
some forms of ceroid-lipofuscinosis in humans suggest
that the canine disease may have a genetic and
biochemical basis similar to that of one of the ceroidlipofuscinosis
disorders in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:67–76)
Objective—To determine whether the late onset
form of inherited ceroid lipofuscinosis (CL) in Tibetan
Terriers is accompanied by low plasma carnitine concentrations
prior to the appearance of clinical signs.
Animals—129 healthy Tibetan Terriers, 12 Tibetan
Terriers with CL, and 95 healthy purebred dogs of
Procedure—After withholding food, blood samples
were collected from all dogs into tubes containing
EDTA. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma-free
carnitine and acyl-carnitines concentrations.
Results—Neither the mean plasma total carnitine
concentration nor the mean fraction of carnitine in the
free form differed significantly between Tibetan
Terriers with CL and healthy Tibetan Terriers. Among
Tibetan Terriers and the general dog population, plasma
carnitine concentration increased with age.
Castrated males had an overall increase in plasma carnitine
concentrations and variability, compared with
sexually intact males. By comparison, plasma carnitine
concentrations were not significantly different
between spayed and sexually intact females. The
mean plasma carnitine concentration in the Tibetan
Terriers was approximately 22% higher than in the
general population of healthy dogs of other breeds.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Contrary to
what is seen in early onset CL in English Setters and
in humans with some forms of CL, plasma carnitine
concentrations are not decreased in the late-onset
disorder in Tibetan Terriers. Our large-scale study
establishes reference range values for plasma carnitine
concentrations in dogs as functions of age and
sex that will be useful in evaluating potential carnitine
deficiencies in other disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine clinical characteristics and
mode of inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in
English Springer Spaniels.
Animals—45 dogs with IE and 74 siblings and their
Procedure—IE was diagnosed on the basis of age at
the time of seizure onset and results of laboratory
testing and neurologic examinations. Simple segregation
analysis was performed with the Davie method.
Results—Median age at the onset of seizures was 3
years; however, 9 (20%) dogs were between 5 and 6
years old at the time of the onset of seizures. Twentyone
dogs (47%) had generalized seizures, and 24
(53%) had focal onset seizures. Results of segregation
analysis were consistent with partially penetrant
autosomal recessive or polygenic inheritance.
Simulated linkage indicated that there was a 58%
chance of obtaining suggestive linkage with the available
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the
present study suggest that in English Springer Spaniels,
IE segregates in a manner that is consistent with partially
penetrant autosomal recessive inheritance (ie, a
single major locus with modifying genes) or polygenic
inheritance. Given enough families with accurate phenotypic
information and available DNA, it should be possible
to use genetic linkage analysis to identify chromosomal
segments containing the causative gene or
genes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:54–58)