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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 21 cats with spinal lymphoma were reviewed. All cats were evaluated for neurologic deficits, although 85% of cats necropsied had multicentric disease. Eighty-one percent of cats had hind limb paresis. Results of FeLV tests were positive in 84.2% (16/19) of the cats, and 68.7% (11/16) of the cats had leukemic bone marrow. Spinal lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy in 13 cats, by examination of a biopsy specimen in 1 cat, and by examination of cells aspirated from an epidural lesion in 2 cats. In the remaining 5 cats, a presumptive diagnosis was made on the basis of neurologic examination findings, positive FeLV test results, and leukemic bone marrow.

Nine cats were treated with chemotherapy alone. The complete remission rate was 50% in 6 cats given cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The median duration of complete remission was 14 weeks. Complete remissions were not observed in 3 cats given only corticosteroids. A single cat treated by laminectomy and postoperative chemotherapy had a prolonged remission (62 weeks).

At necropsy, lymphoma of the cns was limited to the vertebral canal in 10 of 13 cats; 2 cats had malignant tissue in the brain and vertebral canal, and in the remaining cat, the tumor extended into the brachial plexus. Most tumors extended over multiple vertebral bodies, and 4 cats had more than 1 level of spinal cord involvement. The lymphoma was high-grade lymphoblastic or immunoblastic type in all cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine causes of tracheal rupture in cats and the mechanism of injury.

Design

A retrospective study was conducted to identify cats with tracheal rupture. A second study was conducted to establish mechanism of injury, and a third study was conducted to determine volume of air needed to obtain an airtight seal when inflating the cuff of an endotracheal tube in a cat.

Animals

16 cats with clinical signs of tracheal rupture, 10 cat cadavers, and 20 clinically normal cats that were undergoing anesthesia.

Procedures

Details were extracted from medical records of 16 cats with tracheal rupture (9 treated surgically and 7 treated conservatively). For the cadaver study, the trachea of each cat cadaver was intubated and observed during overinflation of the endotracheal tube cuff. For clinically normal cats, volume of air needed to obtain an airtight seal for the endotracheal tube was recorded.

Results

Most ruptures were associated with cats anesthetized for dental procedures. Clinical signs associated with tracheal rupture included subcutaneous emphysema, coughing, gagging, dyspnea, anorexia, and fever. Tracheoscopy was the method of choice for documenting tracheal rupture. Surgical and conservative management were successfully used, unless the injury extended to the carina. In the cadaver study, overinflation of the endotracheal tube cuff with > 6 ml of air resulted in tracheal rupture in 7 of 10 cadavers. For clinically normal cats, the volume of air (mean ± SD) needed to obtain an airtight seal was 1.6 ± 0.7 ml.

Clinical Implications

Overinflation of an endotracheal tube cuff may result in tracheal rupture in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:508–512).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association