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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate signalment, clinical findings, surgical treatment, and long-term outcomes in puppies and kittens after surgical repair of various types of atresia ani (AA) with or without concomitant anogenital or rectogenital malformations.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 puppies and 1 kitten.

Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed for puppies and kittens that underwent surgical treatment for AA. Information regarding signalment, diagnosis, surgical procedures, follow-up time, and outcome was recorded. A previously described classification scheme was used to classify AA as type I, II, III, or IV. Follow-up times and outcomes were evaluated.

Results—AA was classified as type I in 3 animals, type II in 6, and type III in 3. Nine of 12 patients had anogenital or rectogenital malformations; 8 of these had rectovaginal fistulas. Eleven animals underwent in situ anoplasty, and 1 underwent surgery in which the rectovaginal fistula was used for anal reconstruction. Six also underwent balloon dilation for treatment of anal stenosis, and revision anoplasty was performed in 5. All patients with type I or II AA survived ≥ 1 year. Two puppies with type III AA were euthanized 3 and 40 days after surgery. Follow-up time for the remaining 10 patients ranged from 12 to 92 months, and 3 had fecal incontinence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical repair of type I or II AA resulted in long-term survival and fecal continence in most cases. Although numbers were small, patients with type III AA had poorer outcomes than did those with type I or II AA.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare required time and costs of surgery and hospitalization as well as prevalence of incomplete urinary cystolith removal associated with laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy versus open cystotomy in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 dogs with urolithiasis treated by laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy and 23 dogs treated by open cystotomy.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Surgery cost, hospitalization cost, total cost, surgery time, days in hospital, incomplete cystolith removal, and number of doses of analgesic administered IV after surgery were compared between the laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy and open cystotomy groups.

Results—Surgery cost and total cost were significantly higher in the laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy group. Hospitalization cost, days in hospital, and prevalence of incomplete cystolith removal did not differ significantly between groups. Number of doses of analgesic was significantly lower in the laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy was more time-consuming and expensive but associated with fewer postoperative doses of injectable analgesics, compared with open cystotomy. Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy is an acceptable, more expensive, and minimally invasive alternative to open cystotomy for the removal of urinary cystoliths in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes for kittens with phimosis and to develop a system to classify phimosis on the basis of gross pathological lesions.

ANIMALS

8 kittens with phimosis.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of cats ≤ 20 weeks old (ie, kittens) with phimosis that underwent surgical intervention between 2009 and 2017. For each kitten, information extracted from the record included signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, treatments, and details regarding the surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications, and outcome.

RESULTS

The most common clinical signs were stranguria (n = 6), marked preputial swelling (5), and a small (6) or inevident (2) preputial orifice. Six kittens had type 1 phimosis (generalized preputial swelling owing to urine pooling without penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent circumferential preputioplasty. Two kittens had type 2 phimosis (focal preputial swelling and urine pooling in the presence of penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent preputial urethrostomy. No postoperative complications were recorded for kittens that underwent preputial urethrostomy. All 6 kittens that underwent circumferential preputioplasty had some exposure of the tip of the penis immediately after surgery, which typically resolved over time. At the time of last follow-up (mean, 1.4 years after surgery), all 8 patients were able to urinate and had no signs of phimosis recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that circumferential preputioplasty and preputial urethrostomy could be used to successfully manage kittens with type 1 and type 2 phimosis, respectively.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for successful surgical management of dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 dogs managed surgically for AAS.

Procedure—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, radiographic appearance of the dens, type (dorsal or ventral procedure) and number (1 or 2) of surgeries performed, grade of postoperative atlantoaxial joint reduction, and neurologic status prior to surgery (preoperative), when dogs were discharged from the hospital (postoperative), and during a follow-up evaluation (final) were obtained from the dogs' medical records. Risk factors for surgical success and degree of neurologic improvement were identified and analyzed for predictive potential.

Results—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities ≤ 24 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful first surgery and final outcome and a lower postoperative neurologic grade. Duration of clinical abnormalities ≤ 10 months was significantly associated with greater odds of a successful final outcome and a lower final neurologic grade. A preoperative neurologic grade of 1 or 2 was significantly associated with a lower final neurologic grade. Potential risk factors that did not affect odds of a successful outcome included type of surgery performed, grade of atlantoaxial joint reduction, radiographic appearance of the dens, or need for a second surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Age at onset of clinical abnormalities, duration of clinical abnormalities prior to surgery, and preoperative neurologic status are risk factors for success of surgical management of AAS in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:1104–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy of decontamination and sterilization of a disposable port intended for use during single-incision laparoscopy.

Sample—5 material samples obtained from each of 3 laparoscopic surgery ports.

Procedures—Ports were assigned to undergo decontamination and ethylene oxide sterilization without bacterial inoculation (negative control port), with bacterial inoculation (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium fortuitum) and without decontamination and sterilization (positive control port), or with bacterial inoculation followed by decontamination and ethylene oxide sterilization (treated port). Each port underwent testing 5 times; during each time, a sample of the foam portion of each port was obtained and bacteriologic culture testing was performed. Bacteriologic culture scores were determined for each port sample.

Results—None of the treated port samples had positive bacteriologic culture results. All 5 positive control port samples had positive bacteriologic culture results. One negative control port sample had positive bacteriologic culture results; a spore-forming Bacillus sp organism was cultured from that port sample, which was thought to be an environmental contaminant. Bacteriologic culture scores for the treated port samples were significantly lower than those for the positive control port samples. Bacteriologic culture scores for the treated port samples were not significantly different from those for negative control port samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated standard procedures for decontamination and sterilization of a single-use port intended for use during singleincision laparoscopic surgery were effective for elimination of inoculated bacteria. Reuse of this port may be safe for laparoscopic surgery of animals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare short-term complication rates in dogs and cats undergoing cystotomy closure by use of an inverting double-layer pattern (group I) versus cystotomy closure by use of an appositional single-layer pattern (group A).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—144 client-owned dogs and cats that underwent cystotomy between 1993 and 2010.

Procedures—Information on signalment, reason for cystotomy, method of cystotomy closure, complications that developed during hospitalization, and duration of hospitalization were obtained from the medical record. The effect of closure technique on short-term complication rate and duration of hospitalization was examined.

Results—2 of the 144 animals developed dehiscence and uroabdomen following cystotomy closure: 1 from group A and 1 from group I. Of group A animals, 29 of 79 (37%) developed minor complications such as hematuria and dysuria. Of group I animals, 33 of 65 (50%) developed the same complications. Group A and group I animals did not differ significantly with regard to prevalence of minor or major complications. The mean duration of hospitalization was 4.1 days and did not differ significantly between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An appositional single-layer suture pattern for cystotomy closure was a safe and effective procedure with minimal risk of urine leakage and a short-term complication rate of 37%. The appositional single-layer suture pattern for cystotomy closure may be recommended for clinical use because the inverting double-layer suture pattern offered no clear advantage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a device intended for gradual venous occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks.

SAMPLE Silicone tubing filled with various inorganic salt and polyacrylic acid (PAA) formulations and mounted within a polypropylene or polyether ether ketone (PEEK) outer ring.

PROCEDURES 15 polypropylene prototype rings were initially filled with 1 of 5 formulations and placed in PBSS. In a second test, 10 polypropylene and 7 PEEK prototype rings were filled with 1 formulation and placed in PBSS. In a third test, 2 formulations were loaded into 6 PEEK rings each, placed in physiologic solution, and incubated. In all tests, ring luminal diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were measured over 6 weeks.

RESULTS In the first test, 2 formulations had the greatest changes in luminal area and diameter, and 1 of those had a greater linear swell rate than the other had. In the second test, 6 of 7 PEEK rings and 6 of 10 polypropylene rings closed to a luminal diamater < 1 mm within 6 weeks. Polypropylene rings had a greater increase in outer diameter than did PEEK rings between 4.5 and 6 weeks. In the third test, 11 of 12 PEEK rings gradually closed to a luminal diameter < 1 mm within 6 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A PAA and inorganic salt formulation in a prototype silicone and polymer ring resulted in gradual occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks in vitro. Prototype PEEK rings provided more reliable closure than did polypropylene rings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research