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  • Author or Editor: Gary C. Lantz x
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SUMMARY

Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is a naturally acquired condition of large-breed dogs primarily and is associated with high mortality. The clinical course suggests that reperfusion injury may be important in the pathogenesis of gdv. To evaluate the role of xanthine oxidase and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation (which are purported mechanisms of reperfusion injury) in the pathogenesis of gdv-related mortality, we created experimental gdv in 21 dogs. These dogs were then treated with either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor), U74006F (an experimental lipid peroxidation inhibitor), or saline solution (NaCl, 0.85%). Three of 8 dogs died in the allopurinol-treated group, none of 5 died in the U74006F-treated group, and 4 of 8 died in the saline solution-treated group. Tissue malondialdehyde concentration, a nonspecific indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, and pancreas of the saline-solution treated and allopurinol-treated dogs than in the same tissues of the U74006F-treated dogs after surgical correction of the gdv (ie, during reperfusion), compared with malondialdehyde concentrations determined before inducing gdv. The results of this study support the concept that lipid peroxidation associated with reperfusion injury is important in the pathogenesis and high mortality of canine gdv. Furthermore, this lipid peroxidation and mortality may be preventable by appropriate and timely treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In dogs, gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is characterized by cardiogenic shock, with resulting hypoperfusion. Treatment goals include reperfusion of transiently ischemic tissues, which indicates that reperfusion injury may be a factor in the physiopathogenesis of gdv. Recently, we obtained data that indicate that reperfusion injury may be involved in experimentally induced gdv. Using this gdv model, we evaluated mortality in 24 dogs of 4 equal groups, treated with deferoxamine (an iron chelator), dimethylsulfoxide (a free radical scavenger), a combination of the 2 drugs, or isotonic saline solution. All 6 dogs that were given deferoxamine survived; however, 3 dogs of the dimethylsulfoxide-treated group, 2 dogs of the combination-treated group, and 4 dogs of the saline-treated group died. Results of the study indicate that mortality associated with experimentally induced gdv is reduced by appropriate and timely pharmacologic intervention to prevent or attenuate reperfusion injury, and that deferoxamine may be more effective than dimethylsulfoxide.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A study of 26 dogs (examined consecutively) with infiltrative subcutaneous neoplasms (mastocytoma, n = 11; soft tissue sarcoma, n = 13; and adenocarcinoma, n = 2) was conducted. Dogs were evaluated by physical examination, survey radiography, ultrasonography (US), and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior to surgical excision of the tumor. The purpose of the evaluation was to accurately define gross neoplastic margins before surgical excision and to determine whether a difference could be observed between routine clinical staging (physical examination and survey radiography) and more detailed clinical staging (US and CT imaging). The clinical stage of 5 of 26 neoplasms assessed by US and of 17 of 26 neoplasms assessed by CT was determined to be more advanced because of previously undetected neoplasia, greater neoplastic size, or greater tissue invasiveness. Preoperative imaging of infiltrative subcutaneous neoplasms, using US and CT, is highly recommended to accurately determine gross neoplastic margins.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The Veterinary Medical Data Base was used to conduct an epidemiologic study of gastric dilatation and dilatation-volvulus (gdv) to describe changes over time in frequency of canine hospital admissions, to identify risk factors, and to estimate their relative importance. Cases in this case-control study included 1,934 dogs with gdv that were admitted to 12 participating veterinary hospitals from 1980 to 1989. The controls were 3,868 dogs with other diagnoses that were randomly selected from the same hospitals. Frequency of gdv per 1,000 canine hospital admissions ranged from 2.9 to 6.8. The case fatality rate was 28.6 and 33.3% for gastric dilatation alone and for gastric dilatation with volvulus, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (or) and its 95% confidence limits (95% cl) for gdv associated with purebred vs mixed-breed dogs were 2.5 and 2.1, 3.0, respectively. The risk of gdv was associated with increasing age (Χ2 = 305.6, P < 0.0001) and increasing weight (Χ2 = 627.8, P < 0.0001). Significant association of gdv risk with sex or neuter status was not found. The 5 breeds having at least 10 cases and 8 controls and with the highest risk of gdv were Great Dane (or, 10.0; 95% cl, 6.4, 15.6), Weimaraner (or, 4.6; 95% cl, 2.3, 9.2), Saint Bernard (or, 4.2; 95% cl, 2.3, 7.4), Gordon Setter (or, 4.1; 95% cl, 1.8, 9.3), and Irish Setter (or, 3.5; 95% cl, 2.4, 5.0). The effect of increasing body weight on gdv risk was less than that of increasing ideal adult breed weight, determined by published breed standards. There was considerable heterogeneity of gdv risk for individual breeds within ideal adult breed-weight groups. The overall pattern of risk was suggestive that, in addition to age, body weight, and neuter status, a dog's body (thoracic) conformation also was an important determinant of susceptibility to gdv.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association