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Immunoaffinity-purified bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) fusion (F) protein elicited anti-brsv-specific antibody responses in brsv-seronegative calves. After primary vaccination, all calves seroconverted to brsv as determined by the virus neutralization (vn) test and developed anti-F protein antibodies detectable by protein immunoblot analyses. Subsequent vaccinations induced > twofold increase in vn titer in 3 of 9 (33%) calves, and 1 calf became vn-negative, but still had nonneutralizing antibody detectable by protein immunoblot analysis. This calf remained seronegative after challenge exposure.

Two groups of calves were vaccinated im with immunoaffinity-purified brsv F protein. Each dose was 2 ml containing 20 μg of purified F protein. Freund's adjuvants were used for all vaccinations, with Freund's complete adjuvant used for the primary vaccination and Freund's incomplete adjuvant for subsequent vaccinations. The vaccine was administered to both groups at weeks 0 and 3; the first group received a third vaccination at week 21. Group-1 and -2 vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated contact controls were intranasally aerosol challenge-exposed with low cell culture-passage brsv on weeks 22 and 9, respectively.

Eight of 9 vaccinated calves did not develop a humoral anamnestic response following challenge exposure, as demonstrated by vn test and protein immunoblot analyses. Calf 14 from group 1 which had a 1:2 vn antibody titer prior to vaccination, was the only calf that developed an anamnestic response. This suggests that vaccine-induced antibodies interfered with the immune response or that the challenge virus (and the virus that calf 14 was infected with before challenge exposure) contained different F protein epitopes, compared with the purified F protein immunogen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine reference ranges for hematologic and serum biochemical variables of bulls residing at an artificial insemination center.


225 healthy Holstein bulls categorized by age into yearling, intermediate age, and adult groups.


Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were performed on 1 blood and 1 serum sample from each bull.


Significant differences associated with age were identified for 25 of 33 variables. Serum creatinine concentration for clinically normal adult bulls (2.44 ± 0.33 mg/dl) was higher than previously reported reference values for adult cattle. There was a reversal of the segmented neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio between yearling (0.85:1) and adult (2.6:1) bulls. This was associated with a significant and marked decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes per microliter between yearling (5,801 ± 1,683) and adult (1,307 ± 509) bulls.

Clinical Relevance

Reference values for selected clinicopathologic variables were generated from the data. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1386–1391)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate efficacy of a novel vaccine against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) in domestic rabbits.


40 New Zealand White rabbits obtained from a commercial breeder.


Rabbits were vaccinated and held at the production facility for the duration of the vaccination phase and transferred to Colorado State University for challenge with RHDV2. Rabbits were challenged with oral suspensions containing infectious virus and monitored for clinical disease for up to 10 days. Rabbits that died or were euthanized following infection were necropsied, and livers were evaluated for viral RNA via RT-PCR.


None of the vaccinated animals (0/9) exhibited clinical disease or mortality following infection with RHDV2 while 9/13 (69%) of the control animals succumbed to lethal disease following infection.


The novel vaccine described herein provided complete protection against lethal infection following RHDV2 challenge. Outside of emergency use, there are currently no licensed vaccines against RHDV2 on the market in the United States; as such, this vaccine candidate would provide an option for control of this disease now that RHDV2 has become established in North America.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe clinical and scintigraphic abnormalities in horses with a bone fragility disorder.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 horses with scintigraphic evidence of multiple sites of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment; history; clinical, clinicopathologic, and diagnostic imaging findings; and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews with owners.

Results—Horses ranged from 4 to 22 years old; there were 8 castrated males and 8 females. Foci of IRU most commonly involved the scapulae, ribs, sternebrae, sacral tubers, ilia, and cervical vertebrae. Most horses were examined because of chronic intermittent (n = 10) or acute (6) lameness involving a single (10) or multiple (6) limbs that could not be localized by means of regional anesthesia. Cervical stiffness (n = 3), scapular bowing (3), swayback (3), and ataxia (1) were also seen in more advanced cases. Signs of respiratory tract disease and exercise intolerance were evident in 4 horses. Ultrasonographic or radiographic evidence of bone remodeling or degeneration was seen in 19 of 33 affected bones. Histologic examination of bone biopsy specimens revealed reactive bone. Improvement was initially seen with conservative treatment in some horses, but the condition worsened in all horses, and 11 horses were euthanized within 7 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that horses may develop a bone fragility disorder characterized clinically by an unlocalizable lameness and scintigraphically by multiple sites of IRU involving the axial skeleton and proximal portion of the appendicular skeleton.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To test the hypothesis that feedlot cattle with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) have bacterial infection of the lung or liver and concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection significantly more often than pen mates without AIP.

Animals—39 feedlot cattle with signs consistent with AIP and no history of treatment with antimicrobials and 32 healthy control cattle from the same pens.

Procedure—Lung and liver specimens were obtained postmortem for bacterial or mycoplasmal culture and histologic examination; lung tissue was assessed for BRSV infection immunohistochemically.

Results—Among affected cattle, 26 had AIP confirmed histologically. Lung tissue from 11 cattle with AIP yielded microbial respiratory tract pathogens on culture; tissues from control animals yielded no microbial growth. In 4 cattle with AIP and 2 control animals, liver abscesses were detected; bacteria were isolated from abscessed tissue in 3 and 1 of those animals, respectively. Immunohistochemically, 9 cattle with AIP and no control animals were BRSV-positive. Histologically, 9 AIP-affected cattle had only acute alveolar damage with exudation, and the other 17 had acute exudation with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. No lesions of AIP were detected in control animals. Only 4 AIP-affected cattle had bacterial infection of the lung with concurrent BRSV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that microbial respiratory tract pathogens are more common in cattle with AIP than in healthy pen mates. Control of bacterial pneumonia late in the feeding period may reduce the incidence of AIP at feedlots where AIP is a problem. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1525–1532)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research