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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine which imaging modality best determines the microscopic extent of primary appendicular osteosarcoma in amputated limbs in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—10 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Procedure—10 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma that did not receive neoadjuvent chemotherapy were treated by use of limb amputation. Amputated limbs were imaged by use of radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and examined microscopically to determine longitudinal extent of neoplastic cell involvement and length of associated intramedullary fibrosis. Changes detected by use of the various imaging studies were compared with the actual tumor length determined microscopically. Data were analyzed to determine which imaging technique most closely predicted tumor length.

Results—Measurements obtained by use of craniocaudal radiographic views were most accurate at predicting tumor length but underestimated tumor length substantially in 1 limb and slightly in another limb. Measurements made by use of CT were most accurate at predicting tumor length when intramedullary fibrosis was taken into account but underestimated tumor length in 1 limb. Measurements made by use of MRI were least accurate but did not underestimate tumor length in any of the limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although radiography is used in diagnosis of osteosarcoma in dogs, additional imaging studies to confirm the extent of neoplasia prior to limb-sparing ostectomy may be beneficial. Underestimation of tumor length would be associated with higher incidence of incomplete excision and local tumor recurrence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1171–1176)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome of and prognostic indicators for dogs and cats with pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs and 11 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats with radiographic evidence of pneumoperitoneum and no history of penetrating trauma were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, previous medical problems, initial complaint, duration of illness, physical examination findings, radiographic findings, laboratory abnormalities, abdominocentesis results, bacterial culture results, concurrent diseases, hospitalization time, and outcome. Abdominal radiographs were reviewed, and radiographic severity of pneumoperitoneum was classified. For those animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy, time from admission to surgery and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens were recorded.

Results—24 (44%) animals survived and were discharged from the hospital, but none of the variables examined was associated with whether animals survived. Rupture of the gastrointestinal tract was the cause of pneumoperitoneum in 40 animals. However, cause and location of gastrointestinal tract rupture was not associated with whether animals survived. Twenty-three of 40 (58%) animals that underwent exploratory laparotomy survived, compared with only 1 of 14 animals that did not undergo surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats without any history of penetrating trauma is most commonly associated with rupture of the gastrointestinal tract and requires immediate surgical intervention. Even when appropriate treatment is instituted, the shortterm prognosis is only fair. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:251–255)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs and categorize affected dogs by age at time of ovariohysterectomy, number of litters prior to ovariohysterectomy, body weight, treatment of affected dogs, and severity of incontinence and to determine associations among these variables.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—566 ovariohysterectomized dogs.

Procedures—An attempt was made to contact owners of 912 dogs ovariohysterectomized between January 2003 and January 2008 to discuss presence or absence of urinary incontinence. The actual number of responders was 566. Those owners with incontinent pets received a questionnaire further assessing degree of incontinence, diagnostic testing, treatment, and history.

Results—The prevalence of acquired urinary incontinence was determined to be 5.12% (29/566 dogs) on the basis of results of phone surveys and questionnaires. There was no significant difference in the age at time of ovariohysterectomy between incontinent and continent groups. A significant association was found between body weight and incontinence, with incontinence rates higher among larger (≥ 15 kg [33.1 lb]) dogs. Larger dogs were approximately 7 times as likely (OR, 7.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 21.1]) to develop acquired urinary incontinence, compared with small dogs (< 15 kg).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although acquired urinary incontinence in female dogs is known to be associated with ovariohysterectomy, the prevalence in this study was low.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association