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Abstract

Objective—To examine total protein concentration and cell counts of sequentially collected samples of CSF to determine whether blood contamination decreases in subsequent samples and whether formulas used to correct nucleated cell count and total protein concentration are accurate.

Design—Case series.

Animals—22 horses.

Procedure—For each horse, 3 or 4 sequential 2-ml samples of CSF were collected from the subarachnoid space in the lumbosacral region into separate syringes, and blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Total protein concentration, nucleated cell count, and RBC counts were determined in all samples.

Results—Among 3 sequential samples, total protein concentration and RBC count were significantly lower in samples 2 and 3, compared with sample 1. Nucleated cell count was significantly lower in sample 3, compared with sample 1. Among 4 sequential samples, total protein concentration and RBC count were significantly lower in samples 2, 3, and 4, compared with sample 1. Nucleated cell count was significantly lower in samples 3 and 4, compared with sample 1. For 3 correction formulas, significant differences in corrected values for nucleated cell count and total protein concentration were detected between sample 1 and sample 3 or 4.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Because iatrogenic blood contamination decreases in sequential CSF samples, a minimum of 3 samples should be collected before submitting the final sample for analysis. Formulas to correct nucleated cell count and total protein concentration are inaccurate and should not be used to correct for blood contamination in CSF samples. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:54–57)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine type and frequency of complications associated with use of a one-hole subpalpebral lavage (SPL) system in horses.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

150 horses with 156 SPL systems.

Procedure

Signalment, primary complaint, method used for placement, time SPL system was in place, and complications were retrieved from medical records.

Results

Complications were not associated with placement, maintenance, or removal of 66 of 156 (42%) SPL systems. A minor complication was reported in association with 53 (34%) SPL systems, and a serious complication was reported in association with 37 (24%). The 3 most common minor complications were mild swelling of the eyelid (31 horses), tearing of SPL system tubing (20), and loss of the injection cap (30). Serious complications included problems with the SPL system requiring its premature removal and possible replacement (26 horses), removal of the SPL system by the horse (6), infection of the eyelid (4), loss of the footplate in the eyelid (5), and cornea ulceration (1).

Clinical Implications

Proper attention to the size of the footplate and placement of the SPL system in the eyelid should decrease the risk of serious complications. Minor eyelid swelling should be expected in the first 48 hours after SPL system placement. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1271–1274)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the safety of sodium bisulfate for use in horse barn environments by determining its irritant effect on skin and hooves.

Animals—6 female mixed-breed ponies.

Procedure—Sodium bisulfate was applied to clipped intact skin of 6 ponies to evaluate its irritant effect after single (48 hours) and repetitive (6 h/d for 10 days) applications; similar areas of skin were used as untreated control sites. In addition, sodium bisulfate was applied to the sole of both front hooves of each pony and covered with wet gauze, and the entire hoof was covered with adhesive tape for 48 hours.

Results—Contact with moistened sodium bisulfate for 48 hours had no effect on pony skin. Contact with sodium bisulfate for 6 hours on 10 consecutive days did not cause gross changes but did cause mild to moderate microscopic changes including epidermal necrosis, hyperkeratosis, capillary congestion, edema, and diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. All changes were limited to the epidermis and superficial dermis. Gross changes in hoof sole, signs of lameness, and increase in digital pulse pressure or pulse intensity were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duration of contact with sodium bisulfate in this study was in excess of that expected under typical husbandry conditions. Despite this fact, gross changes in skin and hooves were not detected. Microscopic lesions were confined to the epidermis and superficial dermis. Results suggest that contact with sodium bisulfate under these conditions is safe. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1418–1421)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration on endogenous ACTH concentrations in healthy horses and those with pituitary pars inter-media hyperplasia and compare the test with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST).

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—15 horses with clinical signs of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), 4 horses with equivocal signs of PPID, and 29 horses without signs of PPID.

Procedures—ACTH concentrations prior to and after administration of TRH were measured 61 times in 48 horses. Results of the DST (cortisol response) were compared with those of the TRH test in 29 horses. Thirty-three horses (24 with no clinical signs of PPID, 5 with clinical signs of PPID, and 4 with equivocal clinical signs of PPID) were euthanized and necropsied and their pituitary glands evaluated.

Results—ACTH concentrations increased in all horses, but magnitude and duration of increase were significantly higher in horses with PPID. Endogenous ACTH concentrations were influenced by season. The ACTH baseline concentrations and response to TRH were not correlated with results of the DST. Results of DST were abnormal only in clinically abnormal horses or those with pars intermedia hyperplasia, but were within reference range in 17 of 26 tests in these horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ACTH response to TRH is a useful test for diagnosis of pituitary gland hyperplasia, particularly in horses in which baseline ACTH concentrations are within reference range. The DST was specific but not sensitive and was inconsistent for individuals, and results often did not agree with the TRH test response.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine application rate and effectiveness of sodium bisulfate to decrease the fly population in a horse barn environment.

Sample Population—12 privately owned farms in southeastern Pennsylvania.

Procedure—Application rates of sodium bisulfate were approximately 2.3 kg/stall, 1.1 kg/stall, and 0.5 kg/stall. Two or 3 stalls were treated, and 1 or 2 stalls were not treated (control stalls) at each farm. Farm personnel applied sodium bisulfate in treated stalls daily for 7 days. Fly tapes were hung from the same site in treated and control stalls. After 24 hours, the fly tape was removed, flies adhering to the sticky surface were counted and recorded, and a new fly tape was hung. This procedure was repeated daily during each of the testing periods.

Results—Following the application of 2.3 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, the numbers of flies collected on the fly tape were significantly decreased in treated stalls, compared with control stalls during the same time periods on 9 of the 12 farms evaluated. Following the application of 1.1 kg of sodium bisulfate/ stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in treated stalls on 6 of the 9 farms evaluated. Following the application of 0.5 kg of sodium bisulfate/stall, fly numbers were significantly decreased in the treated stalls on 3 of the 4 farms evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings suggest that sodium bisulfate would be effective for fly control in horse barns. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:910–913)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effectiveness of altering the pH of manure with sodium bisulfate, thereby decreasing ammonia concentration and fly population in a horse barn environment.

Animals

4 mixed-breed pony stallions.

Procedure

The 4-week study was scheduled with 2 weeks of treatment (with 2 application rates) end 2 weeks with no treatment (control weeks). During treatment weeks, sodium bisulfate was applied daily to the top of the bedding and straw, then spread on top. Ponies were kept in tne stalls 24 hours a day during the 7-day test period and stall cleaning was not done. On day 7 of each week, ammonia concentration, manure pH, number of flies on a fly tape, and fly-evasive behavior patterns were determined.

Results

Sodium bisulfate applied to the horse stall environment daily of either 2.3 or 4.5 kg/9.3 m2(5 or 10lb/100 ft2) decreased ammonia concentration, manure pF, and number of flies in the stall environment, compared with a control period with no sodium bisulfate. Fly-evasive behavior patterns of ponies occupying the stalls, including tail swishes, head tosses, and kicks/strikes, were decreased during the period of sodium bisulfate application.

Conclusion

Sodium bisulfate rnay be an effective method of decreasing ammonia concentration and may serve as a method of fly control in horse barns. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1795–1798)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine effects of blood contamination on western blot (WB) analysis of CSF samples for detection of anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies, and on CSF albumin and IgG concentrations, albumin quotient (AQ), and IgG index in horses.

Design

Prospective in vitro study.

Samples

Blood with various degrees of immunoreactivity against S neurona was collected from 12 healthy horses. Cerebrospinal fluid without immunoreactivity against S neurona was harvested from 4 recently euthanatized horses.

Procedure

Blood was serially diluted with pooled nonimmunoreactive CSF so that final dilutions corresponded to 10-3 to 100 μl of blood/ml CSF, and WB analysis was performed on contaminated CSF samples. Number of RBC, albumin and IgG concentrations, AQ, and IgG index were also determined.

Results

Antibodies against S neurona were detected in CSF contaminated with 10-3 μl of strongly immunoreactive blood/ml. In CSF samples contaminated with 10 μl of blood/ml, AQ remained within reference range. Volume of blood required to increase IgG index varied among blood samples and was primarily influenced by serum IgG concentrations. Number of RBC in contaminated samples was correlated with volume of blood added, but not with degree of immunoreactivity detected in contaminated CSF samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

During collection of CSF from horses, contamination with blood may introduce serum antibodies against S neurona at concentrations sufficient for detection by WB analysis, thus yielding false-positive results. When blood is moderately or strongly immunoreactive, the amount of contaminating albumin may be small enough as to not increase AQ above reference range. In these cases, AQ and IgG index should be interpreted with caution. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:67—71)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association