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  • Author or Editor: Gail A. Kunkle x
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Summary:

We compared efficacy of cefadroxil and generic and proprietary cephalexin in treatment of pyoderma in dogs. Forty-four dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 preparations at 22 to 35 mg/kg body weight, every 12 hours. Dogs were examined at the conclusion of treatment period and assessed as to degree of improvement. All 3 cephalosporins were effective and safe antibiotics for the treatment of pyoderma in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Serum cortisol concentration was evaluated in 71 dogs before and after a stressful procedure was performed. Thirty dogs were skin tested with sedation (group S), 21 dogs were skin tested without sedation (group NS), and 20 dogs had other dermatologic procedures performed (group C). Group-S dogs had significant (P < 0.001) decrease in serum cortisol concentration after skin testing, compared with baseline values. In contrast, dogs of groups NS and C had significant (P < 0.001) increase in poststress serum cortisol concentration. Mean cortisol concentration after stress was significantly lower for dogs of group S, compared with that for dogs of the other 2 groups.

The second part of the analysis consisted of determining the number of false-negative skin test results for dogs of groups S and NS and comparing these with serum cortisol concentration. Difference in the number of suspected atopic dogs with negative skin test results (false-negative) was not evident between groups S and NS. Also, difference was not apparent between cortisol concentration in dogs that had positive or false-negative skin test results in either group. This finding indicates that high serum cortisol concentration does not affect results of skin testing in suspected atopic dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the distribution and amount of elastic fibers in the dermis of clinically normal dogs and dogs with dermatoses, particularly solar dermatitis.

Design

Skin specimens from 7 anatomic sites were obtained from 19 clinically normal dogs after euthanasia to evaluate the normal distribution o elastic fibers. Biopsy specimens also were obtained from 34 dogs with dermatoses, including 16 with solar dermatitis. Tissue sections were stained with H&E, Verhoeff-van Gieson, and periodic acid-Schiff.

Animals

19 clinically normal dogs and 34 dogs with dermatoses.

Procedure

Numbers of elastic fibers were graded subjectively. Comparisons between clinically normal dogs and dogs with dermatoses were made.

Results

Normal elastic fibers were present in low numbers in the dermis of adult dogs, regardless of anatomic site or presence or severity of dermatitis. Condensed elastotic material was visualized in only 2 dogs with solar dermatitis. In both dogs, the elastotic material was Verhoeff-van Gieson and periodic acid-Schiff stain positive but was not visible with H&E stain. The most frequent histopathologic finding in the dermis of dogs with solar dermatitis was superficial dermal fibrosis.

Conclusions

The dermis of clinically normal dogs does not contain abundant elastic fibers. Alterations of elastic fibers in dogs with solar dermatitis are rare. Superficial dermal fibrosis may be a better indicator of solar damage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of 4 commonly used sedatives on the wheal-and-flare response to histamine and flea antigen were evaluated in 8 flea-allergic Beagles. Skin testing was performed on 12 separate occasions, 3 to 4 days apart. Twelve intradermal injections were given during each skin test: 5 doubling dilutions of histamine phosphate, 6 doubling dilutions of flea antigen, and a phosphate-buffered saline solution (negative control). Of the 12 intradermal skin tests, 8 were control tests performed on nonsedated dogs. The remaining 4 tests were performed on dogs sedated with xylazine, ketamine and valium combination, acepromazine, or oxymorphone. Oxymorphone had the most profound effect on skin test results, significantly (P < 0.05) decreasing skin responsiveness in 8 of 11 test sites (by objective evaluation) and in 5 of 11 test sites (by subjective evaluation). Xylazine sedation enhanced skin test results in 4 of 11 test sites (by objective evaluation) and in 1 of 11 test sites (by subjective evaluation). In no instance did xylazine significantly decrease skin responsiveness to histamine or flea antigen. Xylazine is the recommended sedative in dogs when sedation is necessary for intradermal skin testing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare cutaneous reactivity to insect and arachnid allergens in clinically normal (control) and allergic dogs in the southeastern United States.

Design

Prospective, controlled study.

Animals

26 clinically normal dogs and 82 allergic dogs from the southeastern United States.

Procedure

Intradermal skin testing with various dilutions of 13 insect and arachnid allergens was performed on control dogs to establish skin threshold concentrations (ie, concentrations to which < 25% of the dogs had positive reactions). These established threshold concentrations were then used to test allergic dogs for reactivity. Prevalence of single and multiple insect and arachnid reactions were determined.

Results

Flea allergen was the only allergen that caused a significantly higher prevalence of positive reactions in allergic dogs than in control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Flea hypersensitivity is the most important arthropod hypersensitivity in dogs. The importance of reactivity to insect and arachnid allergens other than flea allergen can be determined only when prevalence of positive reactivity has been determined in an appropriate regional control group of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1431–1434)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Six healthy adult mixed breed dogs were each given 5 oral doses of trimethoprim (TMP)/sulfadiazine (sdz) at 2 dosage regimens: 5 mg of TMP/kg of body weight and 25 mg of SDZ/kg every 24 hours (experiment 1) and every 12 hours (experiment 2). Serum and skin concentrations of each drug were measured serially throughout each experiment and mean serum concentrations of tmp and sdz were determined for each drug for 24 hours (experiment 1) and 12 hours (experiment 2) after the last dose was given. In experiment 1, mean serum tmp concentration was 0.67 ± 0.02 μg/ml, and mean skin tmp concentration was 1.54 ± 0.40μg/g. Mean serum sdz concentration was 51.1 ± 12.2 μg/ml and mean skin sdz concentration was 59.3 ± 9.8 μg/g. In experiment 2, mean serum tmp concentration was 1.24 ± 0.35 μg/ml and mean skin tmp concentration was 3.03 ± 0.54 μg/g. Mean serum SDZ concentration was 51.6 ± 9.3 μg/ml and mean skin sdz concentration was 71.1 ± 8.2 μg/g. After the 5th oral dose in both experiments, mean concentration of tmp and sdz in serum and skin exceeded reported minimal inhibitory concentrations of tmp/sdz (≤ 0.25/4.75 μg/ml) for coaguase-positive Staphylococcus sp. It was concluded that therapeutically effective concentrations in serum and skin were achieved and maintained when using the manufacturer’s recommended dosage of 30 mg of tmp/sdz/kg (5 mg of TMP/kg and 25 mg of sdz/kg) every 24 hours.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research