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  • Author or Editor: Gabrielle J. Monteith x
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Objective—To determine the efficacy and toxic effects of epirubicin for the adjuvant treatment of dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma and identify prognostic factors.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—59 client-owned dogs that underwent splenectomy for splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with or without epirubicin.

Procedures—Medical records were examined for signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings, and postoperative outcome. For dogs treated with epirubicin, dose numbers, intervals, and reductions and type and severity of toxic effects were recorded. Dogs were allotted to 2 groups: splenectomy alone and splenectomy with adjuvant epirubicin treatment.

Results—18 dogs received epirubicin (30 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for up to 4 to 6 treatments. Forty-one dogs were treated with splenectomy alone. The overall median survival time was significantly longer in dogs treated with splenectomy and epirubicin (144 days), compared with splenectomy alone (86 days). Median survival time for dogs with stage I disease (345 days) was significantly longer than for dogs with either stage II (93 days) or III disease (68 days). Seven of 18 dogs treated with epirubicin were hospitalized for signs of adverse gastrointestinal effects. Inappetence, long duration of clinical signs, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, and high mitotic rate were negative prognostic factors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epirubicin may be as efficacious as adjuvant doxorubicin-based protocols, but may result in a higher incidence of adverse gastrointestinal effects. Epirubicin should be considered as an alternative to doxorubicin in dogs with preexisting cardiac disease, as clinical epirubicin cardiotoxicity was not diagnosed in treated dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To use quantitative ultrasonography to evaluate the association between the speed of sound (SOS) at 9 sites in the third metacarpal bone (MCIII) of racing Thoroughbreds with workload accumulation and the effect that MCIII failure has on this association.

Animals—Sixty-two 2- and 3-year-old Thoroughbreds in racing condition.

Procedures—Cumulative work index (CWI) was used to calculate total workload (CWItotal) and also 3 independent CWIs for the various gaits (ie, trot [CWItrot], gallop [CWIgallop], and race [CWIrace]) used during training and racing. Speed of sound was monitored in horses during the 2007 racing season and compared with the CWIs via regression analysis. Sex, age, limb, and MCIII failure were included as covariates in the model.

Results—SOS was significantly associated with CWItotal at 8 sites and with independent CWIs of the various gaits at all 9 sites. Progression of SOS in MCIIIs with workload differed significantly in horses with clinical signs of metacarpal bone failure, compared with results for horses with clinically normal MCIIIs, in 1 site by use of CWItotal and in 5 sites by use of the independent CWIs for the various gaits.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results indicated that SOS in the MCIII of racing Thoroughbreds followed a constant pattern of progression as workload accumulated. With the development of more precise quantitative ultrasonography devices, SOS corrected for amount of activity may be used to identify horses at risk of bone failure.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To report the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of dogs undergoing laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS).


136 client-owned dogs.


Multicentric retrospective study. Medical records of dogs undergoing LAS for treatment of naturally occurring splenic disease from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2020, were reviewed. History, signalment, physical examination and preoperative diagnostic test results, procedural information, complications, duration of hospitalization, histopathologic diagnosis, and perioperative outcomes were recorded. Perioperative complications were defined using the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group – Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (VCOG-CTCAE v2) guidelines.


LAS was performed for treatment of a splenic mass (124/136 [91%]), immune-mediated disease (7/136 [5%]), splenomegaly (4/136 [3%]), or immune-mediated disease in conjunction with a splenic mass (1/136 [1%]). Median splenic mass size was 1.3 cm3/kg body weight. Conversion to open laparotomy occurred in 5.9% (8/136) of dogs. Complications occurred in 78 dogs, with all being grade 2 or lower. Median surgical time was 47 minutes, and median postoperative hospital stay was 28 hours. All but 1 dog survived to discharge, the exception being postoperative death due to a suspected portal vein thrombus.


In the dogs of this report, LAS was associated with low rates of major complications, morbidity, and mortality when performed for a variety of splenic pathologies. Minimally invasive surgeons can consider the LAS technique to perform total splenectomy in dogs without hemoabdomen and with spleens with modest-sized splenic masses up to 55.2 cm3/kg, with minimal rates of complications, morbidity, and mortality.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association