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  • Author or Editor: G. Neal Mauldin x
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Objective—To determine nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs receiving parenteral nutrition solutions.

Animals—8 clinically normal female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 4 treatments in random order. Treatment A consisted of IV administration of nonlactated Ringer's solution. Treatments B, C, and D consisted of IV administration of isocaloric parenteral solutions containing 0, 1.36, and 2.04 g of amino acids/kg of body weight/d, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Urine and feces were collected on days 5, 6, and 7 of each treatment period, and Kjeldahl analysis was used to determine nitrogen balance.

Results—Mean nitrogen balance was negative with treatments A and B but was not significantly different from 0 with treatments C and D. Dogs had the lowest nitrogen balance values and lost the most weight while receiving treatment A. Dogs were able to conserve protein and had higher nitrogen balance values when receiving treatment B, compared with treatment A. Dogs lost the least amount of weight while receiving treatment D. Regression analysis indicated that an IV amino acid intake of 2.32 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 2.81 g/kg/d), as supplied by the commercial product used in this study, would result in zero nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IV amino acid requirement of clinically normal dogs is approximately 2.3 g/kg/d. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:912–920)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome of cats with nonvisceral soft tissue sarcomas treated with surgery alone.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—42 cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for clinically relevant data, and histologic samples were examined. Follow-up information was obtained by means of physical examination or through telephone conversations with referring veterinarians and owners. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to construct survival curves.

Results—Median survival time was 608 days (range, 85 to 2,291 days), although 24 cats were still alive at the time of the study. Tumor size (ie, diameter) and histologic type were significantly associated with survival time. Median survival time was significantly longer in cats with tumors that were < 2 cm in diameter, compared with cats in which tumors were > 2 cm. Median survival times for cats with a fibrosarcoma or nerve sheath tumor were significantly longer than median time for cats with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that tumor size and type are significantly associated with survival time in cats with nonvisceral soft tissue tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1955–1957)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe response rate, tumor progression, patient survival times, prognostic factors associated with tumor progression and patient survival times, and radiation toxicoses (acute and latent) in dogs treated with curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for soft tissue sarcomas (STS).


35 client-owned dogs with STS treated with curative-intent SBRT between October 2011 and May 2017.


Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent SBRT. Dogs with oral tumors, hemangiosarcoma, or histiocytic sarcoma were excluded. Data collected included patient-, STS-, and SBRT-related information, including follow-up information pertaining to tumor progression and patient survival time for ≥ 6 months, unless tumor progression or patient death occurred sooner.


Objective measurements allowing for evaluation of tumor response were available for 28 dogs, of which 13 (46%) had either a partial (10/28 [36%]) or complete (3/28 [11%]) response. Twenty-four dogs died, and the medians for progression-free survival time, time to progression of disease, overall survival time, and disease-specific survival time were 521, 705, 713, and 1,149 days, respectively. Low histologic grade and extremity locations of STSs were positive prognostic factors for patient survival times. Acute adverse effects were limited to skin, and 1 dog underwent limb amputation because of a nonhealing wound.


Results indicated that SBRT for STS was well tolerated in most dogs and provided local tumor control. Additional studies are needed to determine the best SBRT protocol for treatment of STSs in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To assess outcomes, factors associated with survival time, and radiation-induced toxicoses in dogs treated for nasal tumors with curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 28 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES By use of a 6-MV linear accelerator, dogs were treated with SBRT (3 consecutive-day fractions of 9 or 10 Gy or once with 1 fraction of 20 Gy). Data regarding adverse effects, outcomes, and survival times were obtained from the medical records.

RESULTS The median survival time to death due to any cause was 388 days. Of the 24 dogs known to be dead, 14 (58%) died or were euthanized because of local disease progression. Acute radiation-induced adverse effects developed in the skin (excluding alopecia) in 26% (6/23) of dogs and in the oral cavity in 30% (7/23) of dogs. Acute ocular adverse effects included discharge in 26% (6/23) of dogs and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in 4% (1/23) of dogs. Among the 22 dogs alive at > 6 months after SBRT, 4 (18%) developed a unilateral cataract; 4 (18%) developed other complications that may have been late-onset radiation toxicoses (excluding leukotrichia and skin hyperpigmentation).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs treated with SBRT had outcomes comparable to those reported for dogs with nasal carcinomas and sarcomas that undergo conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. Administration of SBRT was associated with a comparatively lower frequency of acute radiation-induced adverse effects. For SBRT and conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, the frequencies of serious late-onset adverse effects appear similar.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To describe animal owners' experiences with palliative radiation therapy (PRT) of pets and identify factors influencing satisfaction with their pets' treatment.

DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE 118 owners of dogs, cats, or rabbits.

PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify animals that underwent PRT between 2004 and 2013. Signalment, tumor-related data, and outcome information were recorded. Owners completed an electronic survey assessing satisfaction with treatment (ie, satisfaction with the decision for their pet to undergo PRT and indication that they would choose PRT for their pet again), expectations regarding PRT, and perceptions of their pets' quality of life (QOL) and signs of discomfort from acute adverse radiation effects. Additional data regarding practical aspects of treatment, pet death, communications with veterinarians, and owner demographics were collected. Variables were tested for association with measures of owner satisfaction.

RESULTS 92 of 116 (79%) owners were satisfied with the decision to have their pets undergo PRT. Most (92/118 [78%]) owners reported their pet's QOL improved after PRT; these owners were significantly more likely to be satisfied than those who did not report improved QOL. Owners who perceived their pets had discomfort from adverse radiation effects (38/116 [33%]) were significantly less likely to be satisfied than owners who did not report this observation. Measures of satisfaction were not associated with patient survival time. Twenty-one of 118 (18%) owners indicated they expected PRT would cure their pet's tumor.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that short life expectancy should not deter recommendation of PRT for pets. Protocols that minimize risk of acute adverse effects may be advantageous. Veterinarians should attempt to ensure that owners understand the goals of PRT.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate efficacy of radiation for treatment of incompletely resected soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs.

Design—Prospective serial study.

Animals—48 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas.

Procedure—Tumors were resected to < 3 cm3 prior to radiation. Tumors were treated on alternate days (three 3-Gy fractions/wk) until 21 fractions had been administered. Cobalt 60 radiation was used for all treatments.

Results—Five-year survival rate was 76%, and survival rate was not different among tumor types or locations. Four (8%) dogs developed metastases. Eight (17%) dogs had tumor recurrence after radiation. Development of metastases and local recurrence were significantly associated with reduced survival rate. Median survival time in dogs that developed metastases was 250 days. Median disease-free interval for all dogs was 1,082 days. Median time to recurrence was 700 days. Dogs that developed recurrence after a prolonged period responded well to a second surgery. Acute radiation toxicosis was minimal; osteosarcoma developed at the radiation site in 1 dog.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An excellent long-term survival rate may be achieved by treating soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs with resection followed by radiation. Amputation is not necessary for longterm control of soft-tissue sarcomas in limbs. Development of metastases and recurrence of local tumors after radiation treatment are associated with decreased survival rate. Acute and delayed radiation toxicosis was minimal with the protocol used in this study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:205–210)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association