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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To measure blood flow in the palmar digital artery and laminae corium, using ultrasonic and laser Doppler flowmetry, respectively.

Animals

6 healthy horses.

Procedure

Digital blood flow and laminar perfusion, respectively, were measured by placing a flow probe around the palmar digital artery and a laser Doppler flow probe in a hole in the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall. All horses were given saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (1 L, IV, during a 30-minute period). Seven days later, each horse was given endotoxin (0.1 μg/kg of body weight, IV, in 1 L of saline solution, during a 30-minute period). Digital blood flow, laminar perfusion, heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, and clinical signs of endotoxemia were recorded throughout a 240-minute period. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to evaluate changes in outcome variables.

Results

Treatment with saline solution did not cause a change in measured variables. All horses had mild clinical signs of endotoxemia. Endotoxin treatment caused a significant decrease in digital blood flow and increases in heart rate and body temperature. Laminar perfusion decreased after endotoxin treatment.

Conclusions

Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient decrease in digital blood flow and a less substantial decrease in laminar perfusion.

Clinical Relevance

Horses with clinical endotoxemia were likely to have decreased digital blood flow and, possibly, decreased laminar perfusion, potentially predisposing them to vascular alterations within the digits. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:192–196)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Two 2.5-cm2 full-thickness skin wounds were created surgically over the lateral aspect of the cannon bone of each limb of 6 horses (n = 48 wounds). Dressings evaluated were a nonadherent gauze pad (group 1); a synthetic semiocclusive dressing, (group 2); equine amnion (group 3); and a synthetic fully occlusive dressing (group 4). Wounds were assessed subjectively at each dressing change, and total wound area, area of granulation tissue, and area of epithelium in each wound were determined by computerized digital analysis of photographs of the wounds. Complete healing time (wound covered by epithelium) also was determined for each wound. Statistical comparisons were made, using Kruskal-Wallis analysis and a Mann-Whitney U test.

Median time to complete healing was: group 1, 53 days; group 2, 71 days; group 3, 63 days; and group 4, 113 days. Time to complete healing was significantly longer for wounds of group-4 horses than all other groups, and wounds of group-1 horses healed faster than did those of group-2 horses (P < 0.05). Wounds in group-4 horses required significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more excisions of granulation tissue (median, 11.5 times) than did those in group-1 (median, 3 5), group-2 (median, 5.5) or group-3 (median, 2.5) horses. Epithelial tissue was detected later in wounds of group-4 horses (median, 27 days) than in wounds of horses in groups 1, 2 or 3 (median, 17 days); however, this difference was not statistically significant. Significant differences were not found for percentage of healing attributable to wound contraction or epithelialization. Use of synthetic semiocclusive and fully occlusive dressings resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged healing and production of excess wound exudate, compared with control wounds. In this model, occlusion of wounds was not beneficial for healing of full-thickness skin wounds of the distal portion of the limbs of horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Plasma and peritoneal fluid samples were collected before and after surgery from 6 horses undergoing a ventral midline exploratory laparotomy and from 6 anesthetized control horses. Coagulation/fibrinolytic components measured in the plasma and peritoneal fluid of these horses included the functional activity of antithrombin III, α-2 antiplasmin, plasminogen, and protein C, and the concentrations of fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products. Peritoneal fluid antithrombin III, fibrin degradation products, and plasminogen values were significantly increased after surgery (over time) in principal horses. Compared with control horses, postoperative peritoneal fluid from horses undergoing laparotomy had significantly increased antithrombin-III activity at 12 and 72 hours, α-2 antiplasmin activity at 24 hours, fibrin degradation product concentrations at 6, 12, 24, 72, 96, and 144 hours, plasminogen activity at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, and protein-C activity at 12, 24, 72, and 96 hours. There were no significant changes in the peritoneal fibrinogen concentration in principal horses. Plasma plasminogen activity was significantly decreased at 24 hours after surgery in principal horses, compared with controls. Changes were minimal in the remaining plasma coagulation/fibrinolytic components of horses undergoing laparotomy. Plasma and peritoneal fluid values of anesthetized control horses did not change.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To measure arterial and venous blood gas, coagulation, and fibrinolysis variables in blood from isolated segments of control and ischemic large colons for the purpose of identifying variables for rapid, indirect assessment of colonic mucosal injury.

Design

Variables were determined at specific intervals during the 4-hour study (3 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion).

Animals

Seven clinically normal horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure

Horses underwent laparotomy and occlusion of the lumen and vasculature of the mid-portion of the pelvic flexure of the large colon. During ischemia of 1 randomly-chosen colonic segment, variables were measured to determine colonic mucosal damage and were compared with histologic scores of colonic biopsy specimens.

Results

Significant (P < 0.05) differences from control values were observed over time for venous pH, Pco2, Po2, oxygen saturation, oxygen content, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and lactate and glucose concentrations. Mean histologic scores of biopsy specimens obtained from ischemic colons were significantly (P < 0.05) greater (indicating greater damage) than those from control colons, and increased significantly (P < 0.05) with duration of ischemia.

Conclusions

Venous lactate, oxygen saturation, and Po2 values were the most significant predictors of the severity of histologic damage within the ischemic colons (R 2 = 0.661).

Clinical Relevance

Venous blood gas and lactate values in the large colon are good predictors of the amount of intestinal damage incurred during 3 hours of ischemia, and may be clinically useful for the rapid determination of colonic viability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research