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Objective—

To determine whether the composition of cartilage from the shoulder joints of dogs varied with the risk of developing canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—

Observational study.

Animals—

12 skeletally mature (approx 1 year old) Labrador Retrievers.

Procedure—

Dogs were classified as having a low, moderate, or high risk of developing CHD on the basis of distraction indices. Cartilage was harvested from the craniolateral and weight-bearing regions of the humeral heads, and wet weight per unit area and dry, glycosaminoglycan, and fibronectin contents were determined.

Results—

Glycosaminoglycan and dry contents did not vary among risk groups. For cartilage from the craniolateral region of the humeral head, wet weight per unit area and fibronectin content increased as risk of developing CHD increased. Wet weight and fibronectin content of cartilage from the weight-bearing region of the humeral head did not vary among risk groups.

Clinical Implications—

Dogs that have a high risk of developing CHD are also more likely to develop osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint. The observed increases in wet weight per unit area and fibronectin content in cartilage from the craniolateral region of the humeral head in dogs at a high risk of developing CHD may be early signs of incipient osteoarthritis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210: 1483-1485)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Intra-articularly administered, long-acting corticosteroids are a beneficial treatment for many equine joint disorders because they alleviate inflammation and signs of pain, but they also exert detrimental effects on the biochemical composition and morphologic features of articular cartilage. Chondroprotective drugs have been shown to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of intra-articularly administered corticosteroids on articular cartilage of laboratory animals. Twenty-one ponies were assigned at random to receive 1 of 3 treatments in the right middle carpal joint. Group-1 ponies (n = 8) had methylprednisolone acetate (mpa; 0.2 mg/kg of body weight) and saline solution administered intra-articularly and im, respectively. Group-2 ponies (n = 9) received mpa (0.2 mg/kg) and polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (gag; 2 mg/kg). Group-3 ponies (control; n = 4) had saline solution administered intra-articularly and im. The corticosteroid or saline solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint on day 1. The im administered polysulfated gag or saline solution was administered at the same time, then was repeated every 3 days for 20 days. Ponies were euthanatized 21 days after initial injection by overdose of pentobarbital sodium.

The cartilage of younger ponies was significantly (P < 0.05) more responsive to the proteoglycan-depleting effects of mpa. Ponies < 10 years old of groups 1 and 2 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower gag content in the articular cartilage than did control ponies. Systemic treatment with polysulfated gag did not result in a protective effect against proteoglycan loss from the articular cartilage. Twenty-one days after mpa injection, difference in [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan, between either mpa-treated group and the control group, was not significant. There was an approximate tenfold increase in keratan sulfate concentration in synovial fluid from mpa-treated joints, compared with control joints. Chondroprotective effect of polysulfated gag on the basis of keratan sulfate release from the articular cartilage into the synovial fluid was not observed. Methylprednisolone acetate caused a decrease in the fibronectin content of articular cartilage, but there was no effect of polysulfated gag on the fibronectin content of mpa-treated articular cartilage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether abnormal laxity of hip joints of canine pups with genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia (HD+) is related to ingestion of milk-borne hormones.

Animals—7 female Labrador Retrievers with HD+ and 8 with low predisposition to hip dysplasia (HD–) and their offspring.

Procedures—Immunoactive relaxin, estrogen, and estrogen precursor concentrations in milk of HD+ lactating bitches and in serum of their pups were compared with those of HD– bitches and pups. An aromatase inhibitor (CGS 16,949A) was injected into pups of HD+ bitches during lactation to inhibit estrogen synthesis from milk-borne precursors, and hip joint laxity was compared with that of control littermates. Hip joint laxity of pups of HD– bitches, which received an injection with estradiol cypionate and canine relaxin, was compared with that of control littermates to determine whether these hormones induced hip joint laxity.

Results—High concentrations of estrogens and relaxin were found in milk of HD+ and HD– bitches throughout lactation. Serum concentrations of milk-derived relaxin and total estrogens were similar in all pups, but estradiol-17B was detected only in pups of HD+ bitches. Hip joint laxity was reduced in pups that received CGS 16,949A. Hip joint laxity was increased in pups of HD– bitches that received estradiol cypionate and relaxin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Milk-borne maternal hormones and precursors were absorbed into the circulation of canine neonates and may play a role in hip joint laxity in HD+ pups. Phenotypic expression of hip dysplasia may therefore be preventable by antihormone treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the quantitative inheritance of secondary hip joint osteoarthritis in a canine pedigree.

Animals—137 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Necropsy scores ranging from 0 to 4 were obtained for each hip joint. Seven unaffected Greyhounds with normal hip joint conformation were also used for genetic modeling, but were not euthanized. Sixty-six male and 71 female dogs were allocated to 2 groups (≤ 12 months of age and > 12 months of age). Statistical models were developed to establish the inheritance pattern of hip joint osteoarthritis that developed secondary to hip dysplasia.

Results—62 dogs had evidence of osteoarthritis in a hip joint, and 75 had no evidence of osteoarthritis. After sex was adjusted for, the necropsy score was found to be inherited additively but without dominance. Each Labrador Retriever allele increased the necropsy score by 0.7 to 0.9 points, compared with the Greyhound allele, and male sex increased the necropsy score 0.74 over female sex. Approximately 10% of the variation in necropsy score was attributable to the litter of puppies' origin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because secondary hip joint osteoarthritis is inherited additively, selection pressure could be applied to reduce its incidence. Similar statistical models can be used in linkage and association mapping to detect the genes in the underlying quantitative trait loci that contribute to hip joint osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine whether onset of mineralization of the femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and age at closure of the femoral and acetabular triradiate growth plates was different for Labrador Retrievers that were radiographically normal or that had canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

36 Labrador Retriever puppies.

Procedure—

Puppies were radiographed every other day from the time they were 8 to 10 days old until ossification of the femoral heads was apparent. Radiographs were then obtained weekly until puppies were 1 month old and then monthly until puppies were 8 to 12 months old. Age at which mineralization was first observed in the proximal and distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses and at which the femoral capital, triradiate acetabular, and distal femoral growth plates were no longer radiographically visible were recorded. Fifteen dogs were euthanatized and necropsied to determine whether dogs had CHD.

Results—

There were 26 radiographically normal left and right hip joints and 10 dysplastic left and right hip joints. Onset of mineralization of the proximal femoral epiphyses and of the right proximal tibial epiphysis was significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal puppies. The left femoral capital growth plates closed significantly later in dysplastic than in radiographically normal joints, but other differences in growth plate closure were not detected.

Clinical Implications—

Endochondral ossification may be abnormal in dogs with CHD. The disease appears to affect multiple joints, even though it is most evident clinically in the hip joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210: 1458–1462)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We investigated whether stromelysin activity in the medium of canine articular cartilage explants is associated with proteoglycan degradation in these explants. Cartilage explants were treated with recombinant human interleukin 1α (rh-il-lα), lipopolysaccharide, or canine monocyte-conditioned medium. Proteoglycan synthesis and degradation were measured. Metalloproteinase activity (inhibitable by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2) in the culture medium was measured by use of fluorimetry with a quenched fluorescent substrate. Western blots of the medium were probed with polyclonal antibodies to human stromelysin, collagenase, and gelatinase.

Neither metalloproteinase activity nor proteoglycan degradation were inducible in canine cartilage explants treated with rh-ll-1α. However, proteoglycan synthesis was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by concentrations of 10 and 100 ng of rh-il-1α/ml. Metalloproteinase activity in the medium accompanied proteoglycan degradation of cartilage treated with lipopolysaccharide and monocyte-conditioned medium. The metalloproteinase released into the medium was identified as prostromelysin by results of western blotting.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of increased dietary chloride and reduced sodium and potassium ion concentrations on coxofemoral joint conformation, as assessed by radiography, were examined in growing dogs. Dietary electrolyte balance was quantified by dietary anion gap (dag), defined as Na+ + K+ - Cl- in milliequivalents per 100 g of food. Diets had anion gap ranging from 8 to 41 mEq/100 g of food. One hundred sixty-seven pups from 27 litters representing 5 breeds were studied during the period of rapid growth. The extent of subluxation of the femoral head was measured on radiographs, using the method of Norberg. On average, less subluxation of the femoral head (P < 0.05) was observed when diets with lower dag were fed. Differences in dag balance did not result in different rates of weight gain; therefore, the reduction in coxofemoral joint subluxation attributable to low dag was unrelated to weight gain. Norberg angles measured at 30 weeks of age were highly correlated with coxofemoral joint status at 2 years of age, as measured by the Swedish diagnostic system and the scoring system of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (|r| ≥ 0.70, P < 0.0002, n = 24). This diet-related improvement in coxofemoral joint subluxation would be expected, on average, to delay or mitigate the characteristic clinical and radiographic signs of hip dysplasia in growing dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Forty-eight 8-week-old Labrador Retrievers were allotted to 2 groups of 24 dogs each; 1 group was fed ad libitum and the other group was given 25% less of the same feed until the dogs were 2 years old. Radiography of the hip joints was done when the dogs were 30, 42, 54, 78, and 104 weeks old. Subluxation was measured by the Norberg angle on radiographs made with the dog in the standard (extended limb) position. Independent of age at which the radiography was done, there was less subluxation of the femoral heads in the limit-fed dogs. Using the Swedish method of hip joint evaluation on the same radiographs, it was found that fewer dogs on limited food intake had signs of hip dysplasia.

Radiographs done when dogs were 2 years old, for all the methods used (Norberg angle in standard and frog-limb position, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals [ofa] score, and the Swedish score), revealed less hip dysplasia (less joint subluxation and less degenerative joint disease) in the limit-fed dogs. Using the ofa method, 7 of the 24 limit-fed dogs and 16 of the 24 ad libitum-fed dogs were diagnosed as having hip dysplasia. Similarly, using the Swedish method, 5 of the 24 limit-fed dogs and 18 of the 24 ad libitum- fed dogs were diagnosed as having hip dysplasia. The food-intake-related differences were significant both for the ofa score and for the Swedish score. There was a significant correlation between the Norberg angle measured on radiographs made with the dog in the standard position when it was 30 weeks old and the result obtained when the dog was 2 years old by the ofa and Swedish methods. The findings support the clinical recommendation to avoid overfeeding of growing dogs, particularly in breeds prone to canine hip dysplasia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip joints of dogs by use of a whole-genome microsatellite scan.

Animals—116 founder, backcross, F1, and F2 dogs from a crossbred pedigree.

Procedures—Necropsy scores and an optimized set of 342 microsatellite markers were used for interval mapping by means of a combined backcross and F2 design module from an online statistical program. Breed and sex were included in the model as fixed effects. Age of dog at necropsy and body weight at 8 months of age were also included in the model as covariates. The chromosomal location at which the highest F score was obtained was considered the best estimate of a QTL position. Chromosome-wide significance thresholds were determined empirically from 10,000 permutations of marker genotypes.

Results—4 chromosomes contained putative QTL for OA of hip joints in dogs at the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold: chromosomes 5, 18, 23, and 31.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Osteoarthritis of canine hip joints is a complex disease to which many genes and environmental factors contribute. Identification of contributing QTL is a strategy to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that underlie this disease. Refinement of the putative QTL and subsequent candidate gene studies are needed to identify the genes involved in the disease process.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to hip dysplasia in dogs.

Animals—192 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Hip dysplasia was measured by use of the Norberg angle (NA), dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and distraction index (DI). Genome-wide screening was conducted by use of 276 unique microsatellites. Linkage analysis was performed with a variance-based linear model. Logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were reported when values were > 2.0.

ResultsCanis familiaris autosomes (CFAs) 01, 02, 10, 20, 22, and 32 harbored significant QTL at LOD scores > 2.0. Among the 6 QTL, the QTL on CFA02 had not been reported to harbor QTL for hip dysplasia. The highest LOD score of 3.32 on CFA20 contributed to the second principal component of the DLS score and NA of the right hip joint. The QTL that was mapped on CFA01 (LOD score of 3.13 at 55 centimorgans) was located on the same chromosome reported to harbor a QTL for hip dysplasia in Portuguese Water Dogs and German Shepherd Dogs. In this study, CFAs 10, 20, 22, and 32 harbored QTL for hip dysplasia that have been identified in a Labrador Retriever–Greyhound pedigree and in German Shepherd Dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple QTL were clearly involved with hip dysplasia. Identification of these QTL will enable fine-resolution mapping and subsequent assessment of candidate genes within the refined intervals to enable researchers to develop genetic screening tests and preventative and novel therapeutic regimens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research