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  • Author or Editor: G. L. Bowman x
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Summary

We examined the efficacy of ivermectin in the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. The study involved 40 female and 35 male rabbits that were known to be naturally infested with ear mites. After a period of acclimation to the animal care facilities, the rabbits were ranked on the visual appearance of any ear lesion and the number of mites on glycerin-dipped ear swabs. The rabbits were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups; vehicle only (group 1), 50 µg of ivermectin/kg of body weight (group 2), 100 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 3) and 200 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 4). The rabbits were treated by SC injections on day 0 and day 14 of the trial; thus, the total dose of ivermectin given to groups 1 through 4, was 0, 100, 200, or 400 µg/kg, respectively. The study ended 2 weeks after the last treatment. Ear lesions of the treated rabbits improved significantly (P<0.001). By 28 days after the first treatment, the mean number of mites on the ear swabs (both ears) was 57.5 for untreated rabbits and 9.1, 0.5, and 2.5, respectively, for rabbits in groups 2, 3, and 4. The mean number of mites recovered from the ears of the untreated rabbits at necropsy was 24,297. For groups 2, 3, and 4, the mean number of mites recovered from the ears was 5,352, 96, and 96, respectively. The efficacy of treatment with a total dose of 100 µg/kg was 77.96%, with 200 µg/kg was 99.61%, and for 400 µg/ kg was 99.61%.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Productivity and economic effects of pseudorabies were estimated for a mean-size, farrow-tofinish swine enterprise. A Delphi technique was used to elicit productivity effects from an expert panel. Enterprise budgets for pseudorabies-infected and noninfected herds were constructed by use of these productivity estimates, as well as by use of economic data from secondary sources. Data examined to determine effects on productivity included preweaning, nursery, and growing/ finishing pig mortality; breeding hog mortality; feed conversion; labor; and veterinary services and medication expenses. Results indicated that profitability was lowered in infected herds by approximately $6/cwt of swine produced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat with chronic anterior uveitis and secondary glaucoma of the right eye was examined for persistent blepharospasm 2 weeks after corneal debridement and grid keratotomy for nonhealing superficial ulcerative keratitis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Examination of the right eye revealed a central superficial corneal ulcer associated with corneal epithelial and subepithelial infiltrates and mild aqueous flare. Structures consistent with amoeboid cysts and trophozoites were detected in the cornea by in vivo confocal microscopy. Suppurative keratitis was identified cytologically. An Acanthamoeba spp was isolated through culture and identified by a PCR assay of corneal specimens.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Symptomatic and antiamoebic (polyhexamethylene biguanide 0.02% ophthalmic solution) treatments were instituted. Over the following 6 weeks, the cat lost vision in the affected eye and lesions progressed to nonulcerative stromal keratitis associated with a dense paracentral corneal stroma ring infiltrate and anterior lens luxation. The globe was enucleated, and lymphoplasmacytic sclerokeratitis, anterior uveitis, and retinal detachment were noted. Acanthamoeba organisms were detected within the corneal stroma and anterior sclera with histologic and immunohistochemical stains. The amoebae were classified to the Acanthamoeba T4 genotype by DNA sequencing. The cat had no medical problems attributed to Acanthamoeba infection over 36 months after enucleation, until the cat was lost to follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Naturally acquired Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis is described in a cat for the first time. Acanthamoeba infection should be considered for cats with superficial corneal disease refractory to appropriate treatments and especially occurring after ocular trauma, including keratotomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 17 horses that were evaluated and treated because of colic caused by pedunculated lipomas between 1983 and 1990 were reviewed. The mean age of the horses was 16.6 ± 3.9 years (range, 10 to 26 years), which was significantly greater than that of the population of horses evaluated because of colic (control population) during the same period. There were significantly more geldings (76.5%), compared with the control population.

Nasogastric reflux ranged from 1 to 16 L in 8 horses and was not obtained in 9 horses. Abdominal palpation per rectum revealed small intestinal distention in 13 horses, displaced large colon in 7 horses, and large colon impaction in 2 horses. Peritoneal fluid was abnormal in 11 of 12 horses from which it was obtained successfully.

One horse was euthanatized after unsuccessful medical treatment. Surgery was performed in 16 horses. Lipomas were blindly resected in 5 horses or exteriorized and resected in 6 horses. The method used to resect the lipoma was not recorded in 5 horses. The ileum and/or jejunum was strangulated in 15 horses, the small colon was strangulated in 1 horse, and the jejunum was obstructed in 1 horse. The length of intestine resected ranged from 0.15 to 7.2 m.

Fourteen horses survived surgery, of which 11 were discharged from the hospital (short-term survival rate of 78.6%). Excluding 2 horses lost to follow-up evaluation, 6 of 12 horses that survived surgery were alive 2 to 56 months following surgery (long-term survival rate of 50%), and 9 of 15 horses died or were euthanatized (fatality rate of 60%).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine dairy herds (mean size, 149 cows) with bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts of < 300,000 cells/ml and > 80% of cows with Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear somatic cell counts ≤ 4 were selected for study. Each herd was monitored for 12 consecutive months. Duplicate quarter-milk specimens were collected from each cow for bacteriologic culturing at beginning of lactation, cessation of lactation, and at the time of each clinical episode of mastitis. Streptococcus agalactiae was never isolated and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from < 1% of all quarters. There were 554 episodes of clinical mastitis. During the year of study, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis varied from 15.6 to 63.7% of cows among the 9 herds. Mean costs per cow per year in herd for mastitis prevention were: $10 for paper towels, $3 for nonlactating cow treatment, and $10 for teat disinfectants. Mean cost associated with clinical mastitis was $107/episode. Approximately 84% ($90) of the costs attributed to a clinical episode were associated with decreased milk production and nonsalable milk. Costs of medication and professional veterinary fees per clinical episode varied Significantly among the 9 herds. Three of the herds did not have a veterinarian treat a clinical episode of mastitis during the year of study even though 2 of these herds had the first and third highest incidence rates of clinical mastitis. When calculated on a per cow in herd basis, mean costs of $40/cow/year were attributed to clinical mastitis. Our findings suggest that herds that have effectively controlled mastitis caused by contagious pathogens may still have substantial economic losses as a result of clinical mastitis and that losses and even rates of clinical mastitis may vary considerably among such herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association