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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine history, clinical and radiographic abnormalities, and outcome in horses with signs of navicular area pain unresponsive to corrective shoeing and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration that were treated with an injection of corticosteroids, sodium hyaluronate, and amikacin into the navicular bursa.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 horses.

Procedure—Data collected from the medical records included signalment, history, horse use, severity and duration of lameness, shoeing regimen, results of diagnostic anesthesia, radiographic abnormalities, and outcome.

Results—17 horses had bilateral forelimb lameness, 7 had unilateral forelimb lameness, and 1 had unilateral hind limb lameness. Mean duration of lameness was 9.2 months. All horses had been treated with corrective shoeing and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for at least 6 months; 18 had previously been treated by injection of corticosteroids and sodium hyaluronate into the distal interphalangeal joint. Fourteen horses had mismatched front feet, and 21 horses had signs of pain in response to application of pressure over the central aspect of the frog. Palmar digital nerve anesthesia resulted in substantial improvement in or resolution of the lameness in all horses. Twenty horses (80%) were sound and returned to intended activities 2 weeks after navicular bursa treatment; mean duration of soundness was 4.6 months. Two horses that received numerous navicular bursa injections had a rupture of the deep digital flexor tendon at the level of the pastern region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that navicular bursa treatment may provide temporary improvement in horses with signs of chronic navicular area pain that fail to respond to other treatments. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1469–1474)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—4 horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint were examined.

Clinical Findings—All 4 horses had a history of acute, severe, unilateral forelimb lameness and had signs of pain during manipulation of the affected upper forelimb; 2 also had swelling in the axillary region. There was no improvement in lameness after diagnostic local analgesia below the carpal region, and 1 of 4 horses had mild improvement after cubital joint analgesia. Radiography revealed enthesophyte formation on the radial tuberosity and linear mineralization of the medial collateral ligament in 2 horses and periosteal reaction on the humeral condyle in all 4 horses. One horse had mild osteoarthritis of the cubital joint, and 3 had osteophytosis of the cranial aspect of the radius. Although all horses were initially examined because of an acute onset of lameness, all had chronic abnormalities visible on imaging. Ultrasonography revealed an irregular boney contour and enthesopathy at the insertion of the short medial collateral ligament to the radial tuberosity and desmitis of the short medial collateral ligament. Two horses had radiographic evidence of similar but less severe lesions of the contralateral cubital joint.

Treatment and Outcome—All horses received phenylbutazone and rest. All horses were free of lameness after a median of 3 months (range, 2 to 4 months) and returned to previous use after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 8 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present report suggested that performance horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint may have a good prognosis for return to previous use following appropriate treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 116 horses admitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between Jan 1, 1984 and Dec 31, 1991 with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj) were reviewed. The prevalence of laminitis was 28.4% (33/116; 95% confidence interval: 20.2 to 36.6%). The prevalence of dpj and DPJ-associated laminitis did not appear to vary significantly by year during the study period. Anamnesis, physical examination, clinicopathologic data, and initial treatment recorded at the time of admission were reviewed to determine risk factors associated with development of laminitis associated with dpj. A trend of increasing prevalence of laminitis with increasing weight was observed. Using a multiple logistic regression model, horses weighing ≥ 550 kg were approximately twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses weighing < 550 kg (P = 0.048). Horses with hemorrhagic reflux observed at the time of admission were nearly twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses without hemorrhagic reflux (P = 0.022).

Treatments administered prior to admission or at our clinic did not significantly affect development of laminitis, except for administration of heparin to prevent laminitis. Of 33 horses that developed laminitis associated with dpj, 2 had laminitis at the time of admission. These 2 horses were excluded from analysis of the effects of heparin administered as prophylaxis for laminitis; neither horse was treated with heparin. The proportion of horses that developed laminitis among horses that received heparin (0.0%; 0/12) was significantly (P = 0.018) less than that among horses that did not receive heparin (29.8%; 31/104). Because of the small number of horses that received heparin and the retrospective design of this study, the clinical importance of this association could not be determined.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Between Jan 1, 1984 and Aug 1, 1990, 27 horses were admitted to the veterinary medical center for evaluation of fistulous withers. Nine (37.5%) of 24 horses tested for antibody to Brucella abortus were seropositive. Horses that tested seropositive were significantly (P = 0.046) more likely to have been pastured with cattle that were seropositive for B abortus, and were significantly (P = 0.010) more likely to have had radiographic evidence of vertebral osteomyelitis than were horses that tested seronegative. Five horses that were seropositive for B abortus were administered strain 19 brucella vaccine sc (n = 1) or iv (n = 4). The horse treated by sc injection of vaccine improved during hospitalization, but was lost to follow-up evaluation. Three (75%) of 4 horses treated by iv injection died, but 1 horse recovered within 4 weeks of treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 10 horses with olecranon bursitis were reviewed to examine treatments, evaluate a technique for en bloc resection of the bursa in standing horses, and determine outcome of the horses after treatment. Before admission, 6 horses had been treated by needle aspiration of fluid from the mass, followed by injection of corticosteroids. Subsequent treatment for 2 of these 6 horses included open drainage and packing of the cavity with gauze soaked in 7% iodine solution. None resolved after these treatments.

After admission to the hospital, 5 horses were treated medically and 5 were treated by en bloc resection of the bursa. One horse that had received intralesional injection of a radionuclide was lost to follow-up evaluation. One horse treated conservatively by open drainage and packing and 1 treated by injection of a radionuclide had resolution of the olecranon bursitis. Only 1 of these 2 horses had a cosmetic result. The acquired bursae decreased in size in 2 horses (1 treated with a corticosteroid and 1 with orgotein), but were still visible 7 and 46 months after treatment, respectively.

The surgery site of 4 horses that were treated by en bloc resection healed by primary intention, and the owners of these horses were pleased with the cosmetic results. The suture line of 1 horse dehisced 5 days after surgery. Proliferative granulation tissue was removed on 2 occasions, and the site healed by second intention after 2 months. A small knot and some white hair remained at the surgery site.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the types of musculoskeletal problems that result in lameness or poor performance in horses used for team roping and determine whether these problems are different in horses used for heading versus heeling.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—118 horses.

Procedure—Medical records of team roping horses that were evaluated because of lameness or poor performance were reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment, primary use (ie, head horse or heel horse), history, results of physical and lameness examinations, diagnostic tests performed, final diagnosis, and treatment.

Results—Among horses evaluated by lameness clinicians, the proportion with lameness or poor performance was significantly greater in horses used for heading (74/118) and lower in horses used for heeling (44/118) than would be expected under the null hypothesis. Most horses examined for poor performance were lame. A significantly greater proportion of horses used for heading had right forelimb lameness (26/74 [35%]), compared with horses used for heeling (7/44 [16%]). Horses used for heading had more bilateral forelimb lameness (18/74 [24%]), compared with horses used for heeling (4/44 [9%]). Horses used for heeling had more bilateral hind limb lameness (3/44 [7%]), compared with horses used for heading (0%). The most common musculoskeletal problems in horses used for heading were signs of pain limited to the distal sesamoid (navicular) area, signs of pain in the navicular area plus osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints, and soft tissue injury in the forelimb proximal phalangeal (pastern) region. Heeling horses most commonly had signs of pain in the navicular area, osteoarthritis of the metatarsophalangeal joints, and osteoarthritis of the distal tarsal joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses used for heading were most commonly affected by lameness in the right forelimb. Horses used for heeling had more bilateral hind limb lameness than horses used for heading. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1694–1699)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association