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  • Author or Editor: G. J. Pijanowski x
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Summary

Liquid mercury strain gauges were implanted in the forelimb proximal sesamoidean ligaments (psl) of 8 adult horses. The gauges measured psl strain while horses were standing with or without external support. In 6 of the horses, the gauges also measured PSL strain in horses at a walk, with or without external support. Gauges were enclosed within sliding polypropylene tubes to prevent nonaxial deformation. Each gauge was placed in 1 arm of a low-resistance half-bridge circuit. To provide temperature compensation, a dummy gauge was placed in the adjacent arm of the bridge circuit and was implanted next to the active gauge in the surrounding fascial tissue.

External support included fiberglass cast support (cast), dorsal fetlock splint support (dfs), support wraps of 3 bandage materials (SW1, SW2, and SW3), and support wrap with caudal splint (SW4). The cast was applied, with the fetlock and foot in weightbearing position, from the proximal portion of the metacarpus distal to and including the foot. The dfs was applied by placing the cranial half of the fiberglass cast on the dorsal aspect of the instrumented limb. The SW1, SW2, and SW3 were applied in a figure-8 pattern around the fetlock, using 50% of the linear stretch capacity of the bandage material, with the horse standing squarely on all 4 limbs. The SW4 was applied identically to the other support wraps, with the exception of addition of a flexible caudal splint incorporated in the support wrap.

Mean maximal strain while standing (∈s) without external support for 8 horses was 6.0% (range, 3.8 to 7.5%). Mean maximal strain at a walk (∈s) without external support for 6 horses was 5.9% (range, 4.1 to 8.2%). Only cast and dfs significantly reduced ∈s. Cast support reduced ∈s to a mean ± SEM 1.4 ± 0.2%, 77% reduction in total strain (P <0.0001). Use of dfs reduced ∈s to a mean 4.2 ± 0.3%, 30% reduction in total strain (P < 0.0001). The SW1, SW2, and SW3 did not significantly reduce ∈s (power > 0.8, δ = 20%). Conclusions cannot be made for reduction of ∈s with SW4 (power < 0.8, δ = 20%) because of low sample size. Only cast and dfs significantly reduced ∈w. Cast support reduced ∈w to a mean 2.0 ± 0.3%, 67% reduction in total strain (P < 0.0001). The dfs reduced ∈w to a mean 4.4 ± 0.4%, 25% reduction in total strain (P < 0.008). The SW1, SW2, and SW3 did not significantly reduce ∈w (power > 0.8, ∂ = 20%). Conclusions cannot be made for reduction of ∈w with SW4 (power < 0.8, ∂ = 20%) because of low sample size.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To expand our current knowledge and to establish limits of correlation between signal intensities of the magnetic resonance (MR) image and actual macroscopic and microscopic anatomic features of the imaged structures of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ).

Sample Population

The right MCPJ was obtained from 4 adult horses that were euthanatized for reasons unrelated to the musculoskeletal system.

Procedure

The distal portion of the right forelimbs was collected from 4 equine cadavers. The bones were drilled to provide fixed reference points and examined by MR imaging. After imaging, the joints were sectioned for gross and histologic inspection. The MR images were aligned and correlated with digitized gross and histologic images to identify tissue types.

Results

Comparison of the images resulted in identification of different bone types, articular cartilage, and soft tissue structures of the equine MCPJ.

Conclusion

Results provided relevant information re-garding the appearance of the imaged tissues of the equine MCPJ.

Clinical Relevance

Although MR imaging does not have current clinical applications for equine practitioners, its wide acceptance as the imaging modality used for most human musculoskeletal derangements may aid in developing more realistic applications in equine medicine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1421-1426)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on rate and degree of return to function of the limb and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) after surgical creation and subsequent stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult large (19.5 to 31.5 kg) dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized, and the right CrCL was severed via arthrotomy, destabilizing the stifle. After 3 weeks, the stifle was surgically stabilized. Three weeks later, 6 dogs were subjected to an EMS treatment protocol for the thigh muscles. At 5, 9, 13, and 19 weeks after stifle destabilization, treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) dogs were evaluated for return of stifle function. Gross and histologic evaluations of the stifles were performed at 19 weeks after stifle destabilization.

Results

Treated dogs had significantly (P = 0.001) better lameness score than did control dogs. There was less palpable crepitation of the stifle in treated dogs (P = 0.06); treated dogs also had significantly (P = 0.01) fewer radiographic signs of bone changes. Thigh circumference was significantly (P = 0.02) larger in treated dogs.There was less gross cartilage damage (P = 0.07) in the EMS-treated dogs, but more medial meniscal damage (P = 0.058, cranial pole; P = 0.051, caudal pole).

Conclusions

Improved lameness scores, larger thigh circumference, and decreased radiographically apparent bony changes observed for the treated group of dogs support the hypothesis that dogs treated by EMS after surgical stabilization of the CrCL-deficient stifle had improved limb function, with less DJD, than did dogs treated with the currently accepted clinical protocol of cage rest and slow return to normal activity. However, results of force plate evaluation did not support the hypothesis. Increased meniscal damage in dogs treated by EMS may be cause for concern. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1473–1478)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research