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  • Author or Editor: G. Elizabeth Pluhar x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the orthogonal diameter (visual metric) method against a manual perimeter tracing (planimetry) method to measure volume of brain tumors in dogs by use of MRI scans.

SAMPLE 22 sets of MRI brain scans pertaining to 22 client-owned dogs with histologically confirmed glioma.

PROCEDURES MRI scans were reviewed by 2 operators, and scans revealing tumors with a degree of gadolinium enhancement that allowed discrimination between tumor tissue and healthy parenchyma were used. Each operator calculated tumor volume for each set of scans twice by use of visual metric and planimetry methods. Inter- and intraoperator variability were assessed by calculation of an agreement index (AI).

RESULTS Mean ± SD intraoperator AIs were 0.79 ± 0.24 for the visual metric method and 0.89 ± 0.17 for the planimetry method. Intraoperator variability for both operators was significantly less when the planimetry method was used than when the visual metric method was used. No significant differences were identified in mean interoperator AI between visual metric (0.68 ± 0.28) and planimetry (0.67 ± 0.31) methods.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The lower intraoperator variability achieved with the planimetry versus visual metric method should result in more precise volume assessments when the same operator performs multiple volume measurements of brain tumors in dogs. Equivocal results for interoperator variability may have been due to method variance or inadequate preliminary training. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the suitability of planimetry for assessing response to treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of preoperative epidural administration of racemic ketamine to provide analgesia in sheep undergoing experimental hind limb orthopedic surgery.

Animals—12 adult sheep (weight range, 51.4 to 67.2 kg).

Procedure—Sheep were anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiopental, and isoflurane; after induction of anesthesia, sheep received a lumbosacral epidural injection of ketamine (1 mg/kg; n = 6) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/7 kg; 6 [control group]). Respiratory and cardiovascular variables were recorded before and at intervals during and for 6 hours after anesthesia. During that 6-hour postoperative period, analgesia was evaluated subjectively with a numeric ranking scale that included assessments of comfort, posture, movement, and response to wound palpation; buprenorphine was administered when a score > 3 (maximum score, 10) was achieved. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, and lameness were evaluated daily for 2 weeks after surgery.

Results—At all evaluations, cardiovascular and respiratory variables were comparable between the 2 groups. Compared with control sheep, time to first administration of rescue analgesic was significantly longer and total dose of buprenorphine administered during the 6- hour postoperative period was significantly decreased for ketamine-treated sheep. During the second week following surgery, ketamine-treated sheep had significantly less lameness than control sheep.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In sheep undergoing hind limb surgery, preoperative epidural administration of ketamine appears to provide analgesia in the immediate postoperative period and has residual analgesic effects, which may contribute to more rapid return of normal function in surgically treated limbs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between preoperative volume of primary intracranial gliomas in dogs as determined via MRI and survival time after surgical debulking and adjunctive immunotherapy.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 47 client-owned dogs enrolled in clinical trials regarding glioma treatments.

PROCEDURES Medical records of all dogs undergoing craniotomy at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medicine Center with histologically confirmed glioma between 2008 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and outcome data were collected. Preoperative T2-weighted or post–gadolinium administration T1-weighted MRI scans, performed at several referral institutions with scanners of magnet strengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 T, were used to measure tumor volumes as a percentage of total calvarial volume. Data were analyzed to assess the effect of each 2% fraction of tumor volume on median survival time (MST) after surgery and adjuvant treatment.

RESULTS Tumor volumes ranged from 0.5% to 12.2% of total intracranial volume. Overall MST was 185 days (range, 2 to 802 days). No association was identified between preoperative tumor volume and MST. Only 3 (6%) dogs had low-grade tumors that had relatively small volumes, measuring 1.4%, 2.1%, and 4.3% of total calvarial volume. The MST for these 3 dogs (727 days) was longer than that for high-grade tumors (174 days); however, owing to the low number of dogs with low-grade tumors, no statistical comparison was performed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Preoperative tumor volume determined via MRI was neither associated with nor predictive of outcome following surgery and adjunctive treatment for dogs with glioma. Tumor grade was predictive of outcome, but unlike tumor volume that was measured with MRI, invasive biopsy was necessary to definitively diagnose tumor grade.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine incidence of and risk factors for major complications occurring in dogs within 30 days after cytoreductive surgery performed by a single pair of surgeons for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 160 client-owned dogs that underwent cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses between January 2009 and December 2015 at a veterinary teaching hospital.

PROCEDURES Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for complications occurring within 30 days after surgery. Data (eg, signalment, clinical signs, previous treatments, preoperative neurologic examination findings, neuroanatomical location, time from onset of clinical signs to surgery, surgical approach, and histopathologic diagnosis) were analyzed for associations with death and with development of major complications other than death.

RESULTS 21 (13.1%) dogs died (11 during hospitalization and 10 after discharge) and 30 (18.8%) developed major complications other than death during the first 30 days after surgery. Dogs with abnormal preoperative neurologic examination findings were more likely to develop complications or die. Dogs undergoing a suboccipital approach were more likely to die. The most common postoperative complications other than death were seizures (n = 18 [11.3%]), worsening of neurologic status (6 [3.8%]), and aspiration pneumonia (6 [3.8%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study provided valuable information on predisposing factors, odds of major complications or death, and incidences of major complications or death in dogs during the first 30 days after undergoing cytoreductive surgery for treatment of suspected primary intracranial masses. Careful case selection may help improve outcomes and minimize complications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate scintigraphy, radiography, and histomorphometric analysis for assessing incorporation of intercalary bone grafts and to compare incorporation of cortical autografts and allografts by the recipient.

Animals—12 skeletally mature sheep.

Procedures—A 5-cm tibial defect was filled with a cortical allograft (n = 6) or autograft (6) and stabilized with an interlocking nail. Radiography, scintigraphy, and fluorochrome bone labeling were performed every 3 months for 24 months. Radiographic evaluation included grading of the host and graft union and assessment of implants and grafts. Technetium-99m-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate radionuclide uptake was measured. Sheep were euthanatized 24 months after surgery, and bone formation was evaluated via histomorphometric analysis of fluorochrome labeling.

Results—Complete union was detected on radiographs by 21 months in all sheep but developed earlier in sheep that received an autograft versus in those that received an allograft. Radionuclide uptake peaked at 3 months and returned to presurgical values at 12 months. Histomorphometric analysis revealed fluorochrome labeling corresponding to each time point, with most bone formation at 9 through 15 months. Scintigraphy findings did not correlate well with fluorochrome labeling of newly formed bone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although bone production around cortical bone grafts was detected by use of scintigraphy, this method did not provide accurate assessment of graft incorporation in sheep. Furthermore, bone produced by activated periosteum could not be distinguished scintgraphically from bone that replaced the graft. Intercalary autografts healed more rapidly and had greater incorporation into the host bone, compared with findings for allografts.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pili from 11 distinct serotypes of Bacteroides nodosus were examined for diversity of pilin polypeptide subunits among serotypes and for purity of the pilin preparations. The pilin of all 11 samples was shown to be homogeneous. Mean ± sd molecular weight of the pilin of 7 serotypes (A198, IV, V, VI, IX, XVII, and XVIII) was 18,500 ± 100. The pilin of serotypes I, III, and VIII had molecular weight of 17,600, 19,400, and 19,000, respectively. Serotype XV differed greatly from the other 10 serotypes in that 2 distinct polypeptide bands with molecular weight of approximately 7,800 and 6,200 were detected. We suggest that these 2 low molecular weight bands resulted from proteolytic cleavage of the pilin protein.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of craniectomy and durotomy on intracranial pressure (ICP) in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Two-part study (experiments A and B) involving craniectomy and durotomy, with and without treatments to lower ICP.

Animals

Six (experiment A) and 7 (experiment B) healthy dogs.

Procedure

In experiment A, craniectomy was performed in combination with durotomy, diuretic administration, methylprednisolone sodium succinate administration, and hyperventilation, and effect of these manipulations on ICP was determined. In experiment B, dogs had only craniectomy and durotomy without associated ICP-lowering treatments. During both experiments, ICP was monitored throughout the surgical procedure with a fiber optic ICP monitoring device.

Results

Intracranial pressure decreased after the combination of craniectomy, durotomy, and other ICP-lowering treatments in dogs of experiment A. Similar magnitude of decrease in ICP was observed in dogs of experiment B after craniectomy and durotomy.

Conclusions

Comparison of these experiments indicate that surgical removal of overlying skull and incision of the dura mater can significantly decrease ICP in clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Craniectomy and durotomy may be useful as an adjunct treatment for increased ICP. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:116-119)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research