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Summary

We examined the efficacy of ivermectin in the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. The study involved 40 female and 35 male rabbits that were known to be naturally infested with ear mites. After a period of acclimation to the animal care facilities, the rabbits were ranked on the visual appearance of any ear lesion and the number of mites on glycerin-dipped ear swabs. The rabbits were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups; vehicle only (group 1), 50 µg of ivermectin/kg of body weight (group 2), 100 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 3) and 200 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 4). The rabbits were treated by SC injections on day 0 and day 14 of the trial; thus, the total dose of ivermectin given to groups 1 through 4, was 0, 100, 200, or 400 µg/kg, respectively. The study ended 2 weeks after the last treatment. Ear lesions of the treated rabbits improved significantly (P<0.001). By 28 days after the first treatment, the mean number of mites on the ear swabs (both ears) was 57.5 for untreated rabbits and 9.1, 0.5, and 2.5, respectively, for rabbits in groups 2, 3, and 4. The mean number of mites recovered from the ears of the untreated rabbits at necropsy was 24,297. For groups 2, 3, and 4, the mean number of mites recovered from the ears was 5,352, 96, and 96, respectively. The efficacy of treatment with a total dose of 100 µg/kg was 77.96%, with 200 µg/kg was 99.61%, and for 400 µg/ kg was 99.61%.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Productivity and economic effects of pseudorabies were estimated for a mean-size, farrow-tofinish swine enterprise. A Delphi technique was used to elicit productivity effects from an expert panel. Enterprise budgets for pseudorabies-infected and noninfected herds were constructed by use of these productivity estimates, as well as by use of economic data from secondary sources. Data examined to determine effects on productivity included preweaning, nursery, and growing/ finishing pig mortality; breeding hog mortality; feed conversion; labor; and veterinary services and medication expenses. Results indicated that profitability was lowered in infected herds by approximately $6/cwt of swine produced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine demographic characteristics of horses donated to the North Carolina State University Equine Health Center (EHC) between 1996 and 2008.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—122 horses donated to the EHC between January 1996 and December 2008, and 246 horses offered for donation to the EHC between January 2007 and December 2008.

Procedures—Telephone and medical records were examined. Data were collected in 5 categories: age, sex, breed, reason for donation, and use prior to donation.

Results—From January 1996 through December 2008, 122 horses were donated to the EHC (median, 3 horses/y; range, 0 to 39 horses/y). There were 131 and 115 horses offered for donation during 2007 and 2008, respectively, of which 38 and 23 were accepted. Mean ± SD age of horses offered for donation during 2007 and 2008 was 12.7 ± 6.7 years, with 75 of the 246 (30.5%) horses between 6 and 10 years old. Musculoskeletal disease was the most commonly listed reason horses were offered for donation (115/240 [47.9%]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that unwanted horses donated to the EHC between 1996 and 2008 spanned a wide range of ages and breeds and included both males and females. The most common reason given for unwanted horses offered for donation during 2007 and 2008 was musculoskeletal disease, with degenerative joint disease, lameness of undetermined cause, laminitis, and navicular disease being the most common musculoskeletal conditions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objectives

To determine the IV pharmacokinetics of cisapride and measure systemic absorption after rectal administration.

Animals

5 healthy adult mares (380 to 610 kg).

Procedure

Cisapride was administered, IV, at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight. In the same horses, after a 1-week washout period, cisapride was administered rectally at a dosage of 1 mg/kg by mixing crushed tablets with propylene glycol and administering the mixture into the rectum. After each drug administration, a series of blood samples were collected. Plasma was obtained and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to determine cisapride concentration profiles after each drug administration.

Results

After IV administration, peak plasma concentration was 221.4 ng/ml and harmonic mean half-life was 1.9 hours. Rectal absorption of cisapride was negligible. Cisapride was detected in plasma from only 3 of 5 horses for which mean systemic availability was 1.23%. Mean maximal plasma concentration after rectal administration of cisapride was 13.5 ng/ml.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

After IV administration of cisapride, plasma concentration is high for approximately 2 hours. Cisapride mixed with propylene glycol and administered rectally at a dosage of 1 mg/kg is poorly and incompletely absorbed. Thus, cisapride is not clinically useful for rectal administration in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1427–1430)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine the feasibility of performing a single-incision loop colostomy for treatment of grade-3 rectal tears in horses.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

Seven adult horses with grade-3 rectal tears.

Procedure—

A single-incision loop colostomy was performed with horses under general anesthesia (n = 6) or while restrained in standing stocks (n = 1). The rectal tear was lavaged via an endoscope. The colostomy was resected after the rectal tear healed.

Results—

Rectal tears ranged from 4 to 10 cm in diameter and were > 25 cm proximal to the anus. All horses survived colostomy surgery. One horse was euthanatized at the request of the owner 1 day after surgery. Six horses underwent colostomy resection 13 to 30 days after colostomy. All horses had evidence of atrophy of the distal portion of the small colon, predisposing to impaction at the small colon anastomosis in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized while hospitalized because of severe recurrent colic. Five horses were discharged from the hospital 31 to 45 days after admission. One horse was euthanatized 60 months after discharge from the hospital because of severe colic, and 4 horses were alive at the time of follow-up evaluation (3 to 12 months after discharge).

Clinical implications—

The prognosis for horses with grade-3 rectal tears treated by colostomy appears to be favorable.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat with chronic anterior uveitis and secondary glaucoma of the right eye was examined for persistent blepharospasm 2 weeks after corneal debridement and grid keratotomy for nonhealing superficial ulcerative keratitis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Examination of the right eye revealed a central superficial corneal ulcer associated with corneal epithelial and subepithelial infiltrates and mild aqueous flare. Structures consistent with amoeboid cysts and trophozoites were detected in the cornea by in vivo confocal microscopy. Suppurative keratitis was identified cytologically. An Acanthamoeba spp was isolated through culture and identified by a PCR assay of corneal specimens.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Symptomatic and antiamoebic (polyhexamethylene biguanide 0.02% ophthalmic solution) treatments were instituted. Over the following 6 weeks, the cat lost vision in the affected eye and lesions progressed to nonulcerative stromal keratitis associated with a dense paracentral corneal stroma ring infiltrate and anterior lens luxation. The globe was enucleated, and lymphoplasmacytic sclerokeratitis, anterior uveitis, and retinal detachment were noted. Acanthamoeba organisms were detected within the corneal stroma and anterior sclera with histologic and immunohistochemical stains. The amoebae were classified to the Acanthamoeba T4 genotype by DNA sequencing. The cat had no medical problems attributed to Acanthamoeba infection over 36 months after enucleation, until the cat was lost to follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Naturally acquired Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis is described in a cat for the first time. Acanthamoeba infection should be considered for cats with superficial corneal disease refractory to appropriate treatments and especially occurring after ocular trauma, including keratotomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Studies were undertaken to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime against the enteric adult stages of Trichinella spiralis and of albendazole against the muscle stage larvae in experimentally infected dogs and cats. Specific-pathogen-free Beagle pups (n = 6) and domestic shorthair kittens (n = 6) were inoculated with 7,500 first-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis. Physical examination (including collection of blood and fecal samples) was performed weekly. During the first week after inoculation, all animals had mild gastrointestinal tract disturbances, but stages of T spiralis were not observed in the feces. Beginning on postinoculation day (pid) 10, 3 pups and 3 kittens were treated with milbemycin oxime (1.25 mg/kg of body weight, po, q 12 h) for 10 days. Muscle biopsy specimens were taken from dogs and cats on pid 26 and 29, respectively. Mean numbers of larvae per gram of muscle were 30.3 in the control and 37.7 in the treated dogs. Mean numbers of larvae per gram of muscle in the control and treated cats were 318.7 and 89.3, respectively. Two dogs and 2 cats were removed from the study at that time. The remaining animals, 2 each of the control and milbemycin oxime-treated animals, were given albendazole (50 mg/kg, po, q 12 h) for 7 days starting at pid 31 and 34 in dogs and cats, respectively. Muscle biopsy specimens were again taken at pid 46 and 49, for dogs and cats, respectively; mean numbers of larvae recovered from muscle were 0.6 for dogs and 13.5 for cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 17 horses that were evaluated and treated because of colic caused by pedunculated lipomas between 1983 and 1990 were reviewed. The mean age of the horses was 16.6 ± 3.9 years (range, 10 to 26 years), which was significantly greater than that of the population of horses evaluated because of colic (control population) during the same period. There were significantly more geldings (76.5%), compared with the control population.

Nasogastric reflux ranged from 1 to 16 L in 8 horses and was not obtained in 9 horses. Abdominal palpation per rectum revealed small intestinal distention in 13 horses, displaced large colon in 7 horses, and large colon impaction in 2 horses. Peritoneal fluid was abnormal in 11 of 12 horses from which it was obtained successfully.

One horse was euthanatized after unsuccessful medical treatment. Surgery was performed in 16 horses. Lipomas were blindly resected in 5 horses or exteriorized and resected in 6 horses. The method used to resect the lipoma was not recorded in 5 horses. The ileum and/or jejunum was strangulated in 15 horses, the small colon was strangulated in 1 horse, and the jejunum was obstructed in 1 horse. The length of intestine resected ranged from 0.15 to 7.2 m.

Fourteen horses survived surgery, of which 11 were discharged from the hospital (short-term survival rate of 78.6%). Excluding 2 horses lost to follow-up evaluation, 6 of 12 horses that survived surgery were alive 2 to 56 months following surgery (long-term survival rate of 50%), and 9 of 15 horses died or were euthanatized (fatality rate of 60%).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether complete cecal bypass, by jejunocolostomy or ileocolostomy, is an effective treatment for horses with cecal impaction.

Design

Retrospective analysis of medical records.

Animals

9 horses with cecal impaction managed by jejunocolostomy (3) or ileocolostomy (6) performed with or without typhlotomy for evacuation of cecal contents.

Procedure

Information on age, breed, gender, duration of medical treatment, preoperative abnormalities, surgical procedure, and postoperative complications was retrieved from the medical records. Follow-up data were obtained via telephone interview with owners.

Results

6 males and 3 females between 9 and 24 years old (median, 14 years) were included. Five of 9 horses had signs of mild pain associated with reintroduction of food after surgery. All 7 horses for which follow-up information was available were still alive between 7 and 54 months (median, 1.5 years) after surgery.

Clinical Implications

Jejunocolostomy or ileocolostomy resulted in apparently permanent resolution of cecal impaction in these horses and acceptable long-term outcomes. Mild signs of abdominal pain associated with the onset of feeding can be expected in the early postoperative period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1287–1290)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association