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  • Author or Editor: Fumio Sato x
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Objective—To evaluate tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of the left ventricular (LV) free wall (FW) and ventricular septum (VS) as an indicator of LV systolic function in dogs.

Animals—7 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Doses of dobutamine (5 and 10 μg/kg/min) and esmolol (50 and 100 μg/kg/min) were infused into the LV of each dog. With each dose, heart rate; myocardial performance index (MPI); transmitral inflow and ejection time (determined via pulsed-wave Doppler [PWD] echocardiography); and FW and VS velocities of the mitral valve annulus (determined via TDI during systole [S’], early diastole [E’], and late diastole [A’]) were assessed.

Results—With each dose, dobutamine significantly increased heart rate and the first derivatives of LV pressure (+dP/dt and –dP/dt), whereas esmolol significantly decreased the +dP/dt and –dP/dt values, compared with baseline. Esmolol (100 μg/kg/min) significantly decreased the VS-TDI–derived S’ velocity and FW-TDI–derived E’ velocity; dobutamine significantly increased transmitral inflow and TDI velocities. Regression coefficient between VS-TDI–derived S’ velocity and +dP/dt was higher than that between FW-TDI–derived S’ velocity and +dP/dt. Compared with baseline, the PWD- and VS-TDI–derived MPI were significantly decreased by dobutamine and significantly increased by esmolol at each dose. Values of FW-TDI–derived MPI were higher than values derived via the other techniques. Correlation between +dP/dt and VS-TDI–derived MPI was greater than that between +dP/dt and FW-TDI– or PWD-derived MPI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, the VS-TDI–derived S’ velocity and MPI appear to be reliable assessments for evaluating LV systolic function.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of equine erythropoietin (EPO) and to develop region-specific antibodies to differentiate equine EPO (eEPO) and human EPO (hEPO).

Sample Population—RNA and lysate extracted from renal tissues of an adult Thoroughbred.

Procedure—Full-length cDNA was determined by use of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and a rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared with sequences of EPO reported for other species. Furthermore, 4 synthetic peptides were designed in 2 distinctive parts of the eEPO and hEPO amino acid sequences to obtain antibodies specific for eEPO and hEPO. Specificity of the antibodies was tested against supernatant of homogenized equine kidney and recombinant hEPO (rhEPO) by use of western immunoblotting techniques.

Results—Analysis of the 1,181 bp in the nucleotide sequence revealed that eEPO was a residue of 192 amino acids. Similarity of eEPO with amino acid sequences of EPO from other species was 81.0% to 90.6%. Antibodies were specifically recognized by eEPO or rhEPO molecules. Anti-hEPO (161 to 165) antibody specifically recognized rhEPO. In contrast, anti-eEPO (133 to 144) antibody reacted with the equine kidney lysate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We determined the cDNA and amino acid sequence of eEPO and developed region-specific antibodies that specifically recognized eEPO or rhEPO. These antibodies may be useful in distinguishing rhEPO from eEPO in a test to detect the misuse of rhEPO in racehorses. ( Am J Vet Res2004;65:15–19)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To test the usefulness of measuring pH and refractometry index, compared with measuring calcium carbonate concentration, of preparturient mammary gland secretions for predicting parturition in mares.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—27 pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

Procedures—Preparturient mammary gland secretion samples were obtained once or twice daily 10 days prior to foaling until parturition. The samples were analyzed for calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit (151 samples), pH with pH test paper (222 samples), and refractometry index with a Brix refractometer (214 samples). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each test were calculated for evaluation of predicting parturition.

Results—The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for calcium carbonate concentration determination (standard value set to 400 μg/g) were 93.8% and 98.3%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the pH test (standard value set at 6.4) were 97.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The PPV within 72 hours and the NPV within 24 hours for the Brix test (standard value set to 20%) were 73.2% and 96.5%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the pH test with the standard value set at a pH of 6.4 would be useful in the management of preparturient mares by predicting when mares are not ready to foal. This was accomplished with equal effectiveness of measuring calcium carbonate concentration with a water hardness kit.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association