Objective—To determine the accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices (ASIs) for diagnosis of unilateral hind limb lameness in dogs and their correlation with visual gait assessment (VGA) scores.
Animals—9 healthy dogs and 16 dogs with previously diagnosed unilateral rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and concurrent unilateral hind limb lameness.
Procedures—Dogs were walked over a pressure plate to determine paw contact area (PCA), peak vertical pressure (PVP), peak vertical force (PVF), and vertical impulse (VI) of both hind limbs. An ASI was calculated for each gait variable. Simultaneously, gait was assessed visually and scored by use of a numeric rating scale (0 to 10). The ASI of each variable was tested for its usefulness in discrimination between lame and nonlame dogs and for correlation with VGA scores.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of ASIs to discriminate between lame and nonlame dogs were excellent for PVF, VI, and PCA; these values were substantially lower for ASI of PVP. Cutoff values to discriminate between lame and nonlame dogs were determined by use of ASIs for PVF, VI, and PCA; however, this could not be done for ASI of PVP. Correlations between ASIs of PVF, VI, and PCA and VGA scores were higher than correlation between the ASIs of PVP and VGA scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ASIs of PVF and VI determined via analysis of pressure plate measurements were reliable indicators of clinical lameness in dogs, but the ASI of PVP was not. The ASI of PCA is an interesting new variable for assessment of limb loading symmetry.
Objective—To develop a practical ultrasonography-guided injection approach to anesthetic blockade of the femoral nerve in calves and to assess the method's accuracy.
Animals—13 cadavers of 4-week-old male Holstein Friesian calves.
Procedures—Detailed topographic and anatomic cross-sectional evaluation of the relevant topography in 3 cadavers was performed to identify optimal injection approaches to the femoral nerve. Three approaches (ventral paravertebral, dorsal paravertebral, and ileal) were evaluated by simulated ultrasonography-guided perineural injection of methylene blue dye in 10 cadavers. Ultrasonographic image quality, number of needle redirections required for correct needle positioning, and injection success as defined through a 3-point grading system were recorded.
Results—The dorsal paravertebral approach yielded the best results, compared with the ileal and ventral paravertebral approaches, to properly and adequately stain the targeted nerve.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The dorsal paravertebral injection technique appeared to be the best choice for performing a femoral nerve block in calves, although this technique will need to be further evaluated in live calves to determine its effectiveness and clinical usefulness. Diagnostic perineural anesthesia of the femoral nerve in cattle might be helpful in identifying quadriceps muscle involvement in those with complex spastic paresis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate lameness and morphological changes associated with an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure as a means of experimental induction of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint osteoarthritis within an 11-week period in horses.
ANIMALS 6 nonlame adult warmbloods.
PROCEDURES The right MCP joint of each horse underwent an osteochondral fragment–groove procedure (day 0). After 1 week of stall rest (ie, starting day 7), each horse was trained daily on a treadmill. Weekly, horses underwent visual and inertial sensor-based assessments of lameness. Both MCP joints were assessed radiographically on days 0 (before surgery), 1, 35, and 77. A synovial fluid sample was collected from the right MCP joint on days 0 (before surgery), 35, 36, 49, 63, and 77 for cytologic and biomarker analyses. On day 77, each horse was euthanized; both MCP joints were evaluated macroscopically and histologically.
RESULTS Right forelimb lameness was detected visually and by the inertial sensor system when horses were moving on a straight line after distal forelimb flexion or circling left on days 14 to 77. Compared with presurgical values, synovial fluid interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2, hyaluronic acid, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein concentrations were increased at 2 or 3 time points, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 concentrations were decreased at 1 time point. Gross examination of all right MCP joints revealed synovitis and wear lines; synovitis was confirmed histologically.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a combined osteochondral fragment–groove procedure can be used to induce clinically and grossly observable early MCP joint osteoarthritis during an 11-week period in horses.