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  • Author or Editor: Frederick S. B. Kibenge x
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Summary

Two nonoverlapping clones, pOH405 and pOH632, containing cdna inserts in the VP2 coding region of genome segment A were selected from a cdna library prepared from the double-stranded rna genome of the OH strain of infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) of serotype 2. Clone pOH405, which is located in the hypervariable segment of VP2, is 328 base pairs long, has nucleotide sequence homology of 72 to 73%, and amino acid sequence homology of 64 to 67% with ibdv strains of serotype 1. Clone pOH632, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal part of VP2, is 230 base pairs long, has nucleotide sequence homology of 87 to 88%, and amino acid sequence homology of 100% with ibdv serotype 1. The lower detection limit of 32P-labeled probes prepared from both clones was 10 ng of OH-ibdv double-stranded rna, using high-stringency conditions of hybridization (54 C, 50% formamide) and washing (55 C, 0.015M NaCl, 0.0015M trisodium citrate, pH 7.0, with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate), and autoradiography for 24 hours. Under these conditions, the dot-blot hybridization assay for detection of serotype 2 ibdv double-stranded rna was 1,000 times more sensitive, using probe pOH632, but only 10 times more sensitive, using probe pOH405, compared with the assay for ibdv serotype 1, using the same probes. Thus, probe pOH632 could differentiate between the 2 ibdv serotypes by nucleic acid hybridization.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

The term reverse zoonosis specifically refers to the natural transmission of disease and infection from humans to animals, with humans as the reservoir host replicating the infectious agent. In the last 20 years, reverse zoonosis has increasingly garnered attention because of human disease outbreaks. In this Currents in One Health article, the author will review host range as the main risk factor for reverse zoonosis, with an emphasis on influenza A virus (IAV) disease events in humans and other species in the context of a “One Health” approach to gain a better understanding of their transmission routes to facilitate their control and prevent them from occurring. The human-to-pig transmission of IAV represents the largest reverse zoonosis of a pathogen documented to date. At the same time, the 2022 farmed mink outbreak in Spain is the most sustained mammal-to-mammal transmission of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 since its re-emergence in humans in 2003. Without any prospect of eradicating IAVs, the best way to mitigate the impact of IAV reverse zoonosis is by vaccinating humans and susceptible farmed and pet animals. The recent major reverse zoonoses involving other virus groups (Coronaviridae, Poxviridae, arboviruses, and the human respiratory viruses transmitted to endangered non-human primate species) and the prevention and control of reverse zoonoses are addressed in the companion Currents in One Health by Kibenge, JAVMA, June 2023.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Contemporary human and animal viruses have a broad or narrow host range—those with a broad host range are potentially transmitted from animals to humans (ie, zoonosis) or humans to animals (ie, reverse zoonosis). This Currents in One Health article reviews the recent reverse zoonoses involving Coronaviridae, Poxviridae, arboviruses, and, for nonhuman primate species, the human respiratory viruses. The prevention and control of reverse zoonoses are also reviewed. Coronaviruses continue to emerge as new zoonotic agents, including a canine coronavirus, CCoV-HuPn-2018, circulating in people at low levels, and a pangolin coronavirus, MjHKU4r-CoV-1, circulating in Malayan pangolins. Moreover, the risk for SARS-CoV-2 variants to mutate in animal reservoirs and reinfect humans is ongoing. In the case of mpox, the risk of reverse zoonosis is low and there are vaccines for use in humans at risk. The situation with arboviruses is as varied as the number of human arboviruses, and only yellow fever virus and dengue virus have licensed vaccines in the Americas. As for reverse zoonoses in endangered species, solutions require changing human behavior and policies at all levels impacting wildlife. Overall, continuous surveillance and viral discovery in humans and animals remain core components of a one-health approach to reduce and, where possible, eliminate zoonotic and reverse zoonotic diseases. Viral zoonosis and viral reverse zoonosis focusing on recent influenza A virus disease events in humans and other species are the subjects of the companion Currents in One Health by Kibenge, AJVR, June 2023.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association