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  • Author or Editor: Frederic Gaschen x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess the relationship between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times measured by use of a wireless motility capsule (WMC) system in healthy dogs.

Animals—31 healthy adult dogs that weighed between 19.6 and 81.2 kg.

Procedures—Food was withheld overnight. The following morning, a WMC was orally administered to each dog, and each dog was then fed a test meal that provided a fourth of the daily energy requirements. A vest was fitted on each dog to hold a receiver that collected and stored data from the WMC. Measurements were obtained with each dog in its home environment. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times.

Results—Gastric emptying time (GET) ranged from 405 to 897 minutes, small bowel transit time (SBTT) ranged from 96 to 224 minutes, large bowel transit time (LBTT) ranged from 427 to 2,573 minutes, and total transit time (TTT) ranged from 1,294 to 3,443 minutes. There was no positive relationship between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times. A nonlinear inverse relationship between body weight and GET and between body weight and SBTT best fit the data. The LBTT could not be explained by this model and likely influenced the poor fit for the TTT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A positive relationship did not exist between body weight and gastrointestinal transit times. Dogs with the lowest body weight of the cohort appeared to have longer gastric and small intestinal transit times than did large- and giant-breed dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare repeatability of measurements of gastrointestinal tract motility in healthy dogs obtained by use of a wireless motility capsule (WMC) and scintigraphy.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs (mean ± SD body weight, 21.5 ± 1.8 kg).

Procedures—A radiolabeled test meal was offered immediately after oral administration of a WMC. Serial static scintigraphic abdominal images were acquired for 270 minutes. A dedicated remote receiver was used for data collection from the WMC until the WMC was expelled in the feces. Each dog was evaluated 3 times at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks.

Results—Mean gastric emptying half-time measured by use of scintigraphy (T1/2-GES) for each dog ranged from 99.9 to 181.2 minutes. Mean gastric emptying time (GET) measured by use of the WMC (GET-WMC) in each dog ranged from 385.3 to 669.7 minutes. Mean coefficient of variation was 11.8% for T1/2-GES and 7.8% for GET-WMC. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 69% for T1/2-GES and 71% for GET-WMC. Results for a nested analysis of covariance suggested that both methods were comparable for the evaluation of gastric emptying.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Scintigraphy and a WMC system had similar variation for assessment of gastric emptying. Moderate intraindividual variability was detected for both methods and must be considered when interpreting test results for individual dogs. Repeatability of measurements obtained by use of the WMC was equivalent to that obtained by use of scintigraphy. The WMC system offers a nonradioactive, user-friendly method for assessment of gastric emptying in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of immunofluorescence asssays for perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCAs) and antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCAs) in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and assess the clinical value of these serologic markers of the disease.

Animals—39 dogs with IBD, 18 dogs with acute diarrhea, 19 dogs with chronic non–IBD-associated diarrhea, 26 healthy dogs of various breeds and age, and 22 healthy young working dogs.

Procedure—Sera obtained from the dogs in each group were added to canine granulocyte- and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mounted slides for detection of pANCAs and ASCAs via immunofluorescence techniques. Sensitivity and specificity (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were calculated for the group of dogs with IBD versus each of the 2 groups of healthy dogs, the group of dogs with acute diarrhea, and the group of dogs with chronic non–IBD-associated diarrhea.

Results—Among the 39 dogs with IBD, 20 yielded positive results via the pANCA assay (sensitivity, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.67]) and 17 yielded positive results via the ASCA assay (sensitivity, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.22 to 0.69]). The specificity of the pANCA assay in the 4 groups of non–IBD-affected dogs ranged from 0.83 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immunofluorescence assays for pANCA and ASCA appear to be useful for the detection of IBD in dogs. The pANCA immunofluorescence assay had high specificity for canine IBD, and pANCAs appear to be accurate markers of intestinal inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1279–1283)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess intestinal mucosal function by measuring permeability and absorptive capacity in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) before and after treatment and to determine whether those variables were correlated with clinical disease activity or histologic scoring of intestinal biopsy specimens.

Animals—29 dogs with CE.

Procedure—Dogs were designated as having dietresponsive CE or CE requiring glucorticoid treatment. Severity of clinical signs was assessed by calculating the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index (CIBDAI). Histologic severity of intestinal infiltration was assessed before and after 4 weeks of treatment in the diet-responsive group and before and after 10 weeks of treatment in the glucocorticoid group. Gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity were assessed by use of intragastric administration of a solution containing lactulose, rhamnose, xylose, 3-O-methylglucose, and sucrose. Urine was collected 6 hours after administration of the sugar solution to determine urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose (L:R), xylose-to-methylglucose (X:M), and sucrose-to-methylglucose (S:M) ratios.

Results—Median CIBDAI scores decreased significantly in both groups of dogs after treatment. However, the median histologic grade of intestinal biopsy specimens did not change with treatment in either group. There were no significant differences in L:R, X:M, or S:M ratios after treatment in either group and no significant correlations between L:R, X:M, or S:M ratios and CIBDAI or histologic scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of tests for intestinal permeability and mucosal absorptive capacity were not useful indicators of clinical disease activity as assessed by the CIBDAI or the sever ity of infiltration as indicated by histologic evaluation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) in dogs with confirmed or suspected immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) or dogs infected with various vector-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Leishmania infantum.

Animals—55 dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA, 140 dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens, and 62 healthy dogs and dogs seronegative for vector-borne pathogens.

Procedures—Samples were allocated to subgroups on the basis of the health status of the dogs and the degree of seroreactivity against various vector-borne pathogens. Serum samples were tested retrospectively via indirect immunofluorescence assay to determine pANCA status.

Results—26 of 55 (47%) dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA and 67 of 140 (48%) dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens had positive results when tested for pANCA. Serum samples with the highest antibody concentrations against L infantum antigen had the highest proportion (28/43 [65%]) that were positive for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) dogs seronegative for tick-borne pathogens and 8 of 22 (36%) dogs seronegative for L infantum had positive results for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) healthy dogs had serum antibodies against pANCA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—pANCA were detected in a high percentage of dogs with IMHA and vector-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, pANCA may be a relatively nonspecific marker for dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, although they could represent a biomarker for immune-mediated diseases and infections.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research