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  • Author or Editor: Fred W. Quimby x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objectives—To differentiate early (1 to 8 days) from late (9 to 14 days) inflammatory phases and assess relationships between leukocyte phenotype and bacterial recovery in cows with Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis.

Animals—10 first-lactation Holstein cows.

Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected from 4 or 6 cows before and after intramammary infusion of sterile broth or S aureus, respectively. Flow cytometric expression of CD3 and CD11b antigens on blood and milk leukocytes, leukocyte differential counts, bacterial counts in milk, and somatic cell counts were determined longitudinally.

Results—Density of CD3 molecules decreased on blood lymphocytes and increased on milk lymphocytes after infusion of bacteria. Density of CD11b molecules on lymphocytes and phagocytes and percentage of CD11b+ lymphocytes in milk increased significantly after infusion; maximum values were achieved during the early inflammatory phase. Density of CD3 and CD11b molecules on milk lymphocytes and macrophages, respectively, 1 day after inoculation were negatively correlated with bacterial recovery on day 1 and days 9 to 14, respectively. Density of CD11b molecules on milk macrophages and the ratios of phagocyte to lymphocyte percentages and polymorphonuclear cell to macrophage percentages in milk differentiated the early from the late inflammatory phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activation of bovine mammary gland macrophages and T cells in response to intramammary infusion of S aureus was associated with an inability to culture this bacterium from milk. Identification of specific inflammatory phases of S aureus-induced mastitis in cows may allow for the design of more efficacious treatment and control programs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1840–1851)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To assess automated ribotyping for characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to identify their type prevalence and geographic distribution.

Sample Population—39 human and 56 ruminant P aeruginosa isolates.

Procedures—Isolates were identified by use of bacteriologic techniques and automated PvuII-based ribotyping. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was tested in vitro. Data were analyzed for index of discrimination; prevalence ratio; geographic distribution of ribotypes found only in humans, only in cows, or only in goats (single-host ribotypes); and geographic distribution of ribotypes found in humans and ruminants (multihost ribotypes).

Results—All isolates were typeable (45 ribotypes, 35 single-host ribotypes). Ribotyping index of discrimination was 0.976. More isolates (45.3%) than expected yielded multihost ribotypes (22% of all ribotypes). Although 8.6% of single-host ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates, 60% of multihost ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates. Ninety percent of multihost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas, whereas 3.0% of singlehost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas. All ruminant isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and polymyxin B. In contrast, antibiogram profiles differed for human isolates from different geographic areas. Susceptibility to antimicrobials differentiated 6 isolates not distinguished by ribotyping.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Automated ribotyping with PvuII discriminated more isolates than in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. In combination, both tests provided more information than either test alone. Given the greater prevalence and geographic distribution of multihost ribotypes, immunocompromised humans and lactating ruminants may have a greater risk for disease if exposed to multihost P aeruginosa ribotypes, compared with single-host ribotypes. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:864–870)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research