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  • Author or Editor: Fred M. Hopkins x
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Fetal membranes usually are released from the uterus between 2 and 6 postpartum hours. However, in a substantial percentage of cows (11%), fetal membranes are retained for several days. In part, failure of collagen breakdown seems to be related to retention of fetal membranes. Injections of 200,000 U of bacterial collagenase in 1,000 ml of physiologic saline solution via umbilical arteries (1 or 2) between 24 and 72 hours of retention caused release of retained fetal membranes in 23 of 27 cows (85%) with noninduced retained fetal membranes and in 10 of 14 cows (71%) with experimentally induced retained fetal membranes, within 36 hours after injection. Controls (n = 36) did not release retained fetal membranes within this time. Injections of collagenase via a jugular vein (2.2 × 106 U in 1,000 ml of physiologic saline solution), administered over a 30-minute period, caused release of retained fetal membranes within 36 hours in 3 of 6 cows with experimentally induced retained fetal membranes. Clinical complications did not follow treatments with collagenase.

Umbilical injections of bacterial collagenase were highly effective in the treatment of retained fetal membranes in cows. The procedure is simple, safe, affordable, and can be completed in 25 minutes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and management practices involving antimicrobial use among Tennessee beef producers.

Design—Mail survey.

Sample Population—A population-based, stratified random sample of 3,000 beef producers across the state.

Procedures—Questionnaires were mailed to beef producers. Questions focused on producer practices related to education, biosecurity, veterinary use, and the purchase and use of antimicrobials. Operation types were categorized as either cow-calf only or multiple operation type (MOT). Associations between various factors and antimicrobial use were evaluated by use of multivariable logistic regression, with the outcome variable being any antimicrobial use (injectable or by mouth) in the past year.

Results—Of 3,000 questionnaires mailed, 1,042 (34.7%) were returned. A significantly higher proportion of producers with MOTs reported giving antimicrobials by mouth or by injection than did producers with cow-calf only operations. In addition, higher proportions of producers with MOTs than producers with cow-calf only operations reported treating with macrolides, florfenicol, ceftiofur, and aminoglycosides. In the multivariable analysis, herd size >50 cattle, participation in Beef Quality Assurance or master beef producer certification programs, quarantining of newly purchased animals, use of written instructions for treating disease, and observation of withdrawal times were associated with a higher likelihood of antimicrobial use.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that producers who engaged in more progressive farming practices were also more likely to use antimicrobials. Incorporating training on judicious antimicrobial use into educational programs would likely increase awareness of best management practices regarding antimicrobial use.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association