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Summary

Ibuprofen treatment was compared with saline solution treatment in an endotoxin-induced experimental model of bovine mastitis. Acute mastitis was induced in healthy lactating Holstein cows (n = 12) by intrammamary inoculation of 1 mg of Escherichia coli 026:B6 lipopolysaccharide in a single quarter per cow. Cows were assigned at random to ibuprofen (25 mg/kg of body weight, iv, n = 6) or 0.9% sodium chloride solution control (1.25 ml/kg, iv, n = 6) treatment groups. Ibuprofen or saline solution was administered once, 2 hours after endotoxin administration. The clinical course of endotoxin-induced mastitis and hematologic, clinical biochemical, and plasma mineral changes were monitored and compared between ibuprofen-treated and control cows. Clinical monitoring and blood sample collection were performed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours after endotoxin challenge.

Rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased in saline treated cows, compared with cows treated with ibuprofen. Blood eosinophil count and serum phosphorus, sodium, and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in saline-treated cows, compared with cows treated with ibuprofen. Ibuprofen treatment did not significantly change ruminations per minute, electrical conductivity of milk, quarter size, or quarter inflammation. The remaining hematologic, serum biochemical, plasma mineral, and coagulation values also were not changed significantly in response to ibuprofen treatment. Untoward effects attributed to ibuprofen administration were not observed. These results indicate that ibuprofen may provide empiric relief of clinical signs of coliform-induced mastitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether addition of epinephrine to a lidocaine solution would prolong and potentiate the efficacy of a palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) in horses.

ANIMALS 6 adult horses with naturally occurring forefoot lameness.

PROCEDURES Initially, a PDNB with a 2% lidocaine solution was performed on the affected foot of each horse. Three days later, the PDNB was repeated with a 1% lidocaine solution or a 1% lidocaine solution containing epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000). After another 3-day washout period, the PDNB was repeated with the treatment opposite that administered for the second PDNB. Gait was analyzed with a computerized lameness analysis system and heart rate and extent of skin sensation between the heel bulbs of the blocked foot were evaluated at predetermined times for 2 hours after each PDNB.

RESULTS Efficacy and duration of the PDNB did not differ significantly between the 2% and 1% lidocaine treatments. The addition of epinephrine to the 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of the PDNB. It also resulted in a positive correlation between skin desensitization and amelioration of lameness. Median heart rate remained unchanged throughout the observation period for all 3 treatments. No adverse effects associated with the PDNBs were observed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Addition of epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000) to a 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of a PDNB in horses with naturally occurring lameness and might be clinically useful for lameness evaluations and standing surgery of the forefoot of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the speed of onset and analgesic effect of mepivacaine deposited within or immediately outside the neurovascular bundle at the base of the proximal sesamoid bones in horses.

ANIMALS

6 horses with naturally occurring forefoot-related lameness.

PROCEDURES

In a crossover study design, horses were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments first, with the second treatment administered 3 to 7 days later. Trotting gait was analyzed with an inertial sensor–based motion analysis system immediately before treatment to determine degree of lameness. Afterward, ultrasound guidance was used to inject 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride around the palmar digital nerves of the affected forelimb at the level of the base of the proximal sesamoid bones either within the subcircumneural space or outside the circumneural sheath. After injection, gait was reevaluated at 5-minute intervals for 45 minutes.

RESULTS

Mepivacaine deposition outside the circumneural sheath did not resolve lameness in any horse; for 3 horses, the mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement was 13.3 minutes, and the remaining 3 horses had no such reduction at any point. Mepivacaine deposition within the subcircumneural space resulted in a mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement of 6.7 minutes and mean time to resolution of lameness of 21.7 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that when peripheral nerves of horses lie within a sheath, local anesthetic solution should be deposited within the sheath for an effective nerve block. If local anesthetic solution is deposited outside the sheath, the nerve block may yield erroneous results.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pharmacokinetic variables of ibuprofen were studied in 6 adult lactating dairy goats after single administration of the drug (14 and 25 mg/kg of body weight, IV, and 50 and 100 mg/kg, PO). Each of the goats was given all doses, with a minimum of 1 week between doses. Ibuprofen concentration in serum was analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The lower limit of detection for the ibuprofen assay was 50 ng/ml.

Ibuprofen pharmacokinetic variables after IV administration best fit an open two-compartment model. Geometric mean (range) volume of distribution at steady state was 0.16 (0.11 to 0.19) and 0.17 (0.15 to 0.19) L/kg, and terminal half-life was 1.08 (0.79 to 1.70) and 1.27 (1.03 to 1.88) hours, for ibuprofen dosages of 14 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. After 50 and 100 mg/kg administered orally, bioavailability was 90.8 and 106%, respectively. Area under the curve increased linearly with dose administered. Adverse effects were not observed in goats given ibuprofen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen were studied in 6 adult lactating dairy cows after a single iv or oral administration of ibuprofen (25 mg/kg of body weight). Ibuprofen concentrations in milk and serum were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The lower limit of detection of the ibuprofen assay was 50 ng/ml.

Serum ibuprofen concentration-time curves after iv administration best fit an open two-compartment model. Harmonic mean volume of distribution at steady state was 0.14 (range, 0.12 to 0.17) L/kg, elimination half-life was 1.55 (range, 1.33 to 1.73) hours, and total clearance was 86.2 (range, 68.8 to 106.2) ml/kg/h. Harmonic mean oral bioavailability was 99% (range, 79 to 112). Adverse effects were not observed in cows given ibuprofen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in healthy foals and to determine clinical effects after oral administration for 6 days.

Animals

7 healthy 5- to 10-week-old foals.

Procedure

Serum concentrations of ibuprofen were measured after IV and oral (nasogastric tube) administration at dosages of 10 and 25 mg/kg of body weight. Foals were given ibuprofen (25 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) as a paste for 6 days. Serum and urine were obtained before and after the 6-day period.

Results

Half-life of elimination (Kel t1/2) of IV-administered ibuprofen (ie, 10 and 25 mg/kg), was 79 and 108 minutes, maximal serum concentration (C max ) was 82 and 160 μg/ml, and clearance was 0.003 and 0.002 L/kg/min, respectively. At the higher dosage, clearance was significantly lower and C max was significantly higher. Ibuprofen given via nasogastric tube resulted in Kel t1/2 of 81 and 100 minutes and C max of 22 and 52 μg/ml for 10 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. The absorption half-life was 13 minutes, and bioavailability ranged from 71 to 100%. Foals remained healthy during oral administration of ibuprofen. Serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, and l-iditol dehydrogenase values increased significantly, and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity and osmolality decreased, but all measurements remained within reference ranges. Urine GGT activity doubled. Necropsy did not reveal gross or histologic renal lesions attributable to ibuprofen. Acute gastric ulcers were evident in 1 foal, although clinical signs of ulcers were not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Ibuprofen can be given safely to healthy foals at dosages ≤ 25 mg/kg every 8 hours for up to 6 days. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1066-1073)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine a dose of medetomidine that will induce sedation in llamas, to assess effects of medetomidine sedation on arterial blood gas variables, and to determine efficacy of atipamezole in reversing medetomidine-induced sedation.

Design

Prospective, randomized clinical trial.

Animals

15 clinically normal adult llamas.

Procedure

9 llamas received various doses of medetomidine (0.01, 0.02, or 0.03 mg/kg [0.005, 0.009, or 0.014 mg/lb] of body weight, IM). Heart and respiratory rates and sedative effects were recorded. Using the lowest dose that induced deep sedation, 6 different llamas were used to assess effects of medetomidine on arterial blood gas variables. These same 6 llamas were later given atipamezole (0.125 mg/kg [0.057 mg/lb], IV) 30 minutes after medetomidine injection. Heart and respiratory rates, sedative effects, and time from atipamezole injection to standing were recorded.

Results

Sedation began 6.67 ± 1.15 minutes (mean ± SD) after medetomidine administration (0.03 mg/kg, IM). Arterial blood gas variables measured 30 and 60 minutes after injection were not different from baseline. Llamas that did not receive atipamezole remained recumbent for 91.50 ± 24.68 minutes. After atipamezole administration, llamas were able to stand in 5.80 ± 3.27 minutes.

Clinical Implications

Medetomidine induced light to deep sedation in a dose-dependent manner in clinically normal llamas. A dose of 0.03 mg/kg induced deep sedation with a short period of analgesia. Atipamezole rapidly reversed effects of medetomidine, and llamas recovered quickly and were soon able to stand. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1562–1565)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess onset of analgesia for 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar nerve blocks in lame horses.

ANIMALS

6 naturally lame horses.

PROCEDURES

A crossover experiment was conducted. Horses were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (3% chloroprocaine or 2% mepivacaine first). Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed in the lame limb with the assigned treatment. Lameness was objectively evaluated before treatment administration and at various points for 120 minutes after treatment with a wireless inertial sensor-based motion analysis system. Following a 7-day washout period, horses then received the other treatment and lameness evaluations were repeated.

RESULTS

Median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with 3% chloroprocaine resulted in more consistent, rapid, and profound amelioration of lameness than did blocks performed with 2% mepivacaine. Lameness decreased more between 20 and 40 minutes after injection when 3% chloroprocaine was used than when 2% mepivacaine was used. Complete resolution of lameness was detected a mean of 9 minutes after injection when median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed with 3% chloroprocaine and a mean of 28 minutes after injection when performed with 2% mepivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3% chloroprocaine had a more rapid onset and provided better analgesia for median and ulnar nerve blocks in horses with naturally occurring lameness, compared with 2% mepivacaine. These favorable properties suggest that 3% chloroprocaine would be useful for performance of median and ulnar regional nerve blocks during complicated lameness evaluations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate shedding patterns of Staphylococcus aureus, specifically the association between clonal relatedness and shedding patterns of S aureus for cows with naturally occurring S aureus intramammary infection.

Design—Longitudinal field study.

Sample—Milk samples from 22 lactating cows (29 mammary glands) of varied numbers of lactations on 2 dairies.

Procedures—Foremilk samples were collected weekly for 26 to 44 weeks during lactation from individual mammary glands. Milk samples were cultured bacteriologically with a 0.01-mL inoculum. Samples were considered culture positive for S aureus if ≥ 1 colony-forming units were obtained. Milk samples from known S aureus–positive mammary glands that were culture negative for S aureus or culture positive with a single colony of S aureus were cultured bacteriologically a second time with a 0.1-mL inoculum. Longitudinal shedding patterns of S aureus and the effect of strain type on ln(colony forming unit count) were examined.

Results—With the 0.01-mL inoculum, 914 of 1,070 (85%) samples were culture positive. After reculturing of negative samples with a 0.1-mL inoculum, 1,011 (95%) of the samples were culture positive. There was no significant difference in the detection of S aureus between genotypic clusters when either the 0.01- or 0.1-mL inoculum was used. There was no significant difference in the amount of shedding between mammary glands infected with isolates in genotypic cluster 1 or 2. No consistent shedding patterns were identified among or within cows. There was a significant difference in mammary gland linear score and test day (composite) linear score between mammary glands infected with isolates in genotypic clusters 1 and 2.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceS aureus was shed consistently in cows with naturally occurring intramammary infection in cows, and regardless of the pulsotype, variations in the amount of S aureus shedding had no significant effect on the ability to detect S aureus with a 0.1-mL inoculum.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association