OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics.
DESIGN Survey and curriculum review.
All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions).
PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare.
RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.
Objective—To compare use of 4 disease severity scoring systems to predict bacteremia (yes vs no) and outcome (survived vs died or culled) in dairy cows with acute coliform mastitis (ACM).
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—99 dairy cows with ACM.
Procedures—Cows were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe disease with a scoring system based on systemic disease signs alone (systemic severity score [SSS] system), a system based on local disease signs alone (local severity score [LSS] system), and 2 previously described systems based on a combination of local and systemic signs (local-systemic score 1 [LS1] and local-systemic score 2 [LS2] systems). Test performance was calculated to determine whether a severe disease classification could be used to predict bacteremia or outcome.
Results—21%, 53%, 63%, and 38% of cows were classified as having severe disease with the SSS, LSS, LS1, and LS2 systems, respectively. For both bacteremia and outcome, sensitivity was highest for the LS1 system, but specificity and accuracy were highest for the SSS system. Examination of a scatterplot of true-positive rate versus false-positive rate for each of the scoring systems indicated that the SSS and LS2 systems were similar in their ability to correctly identify cows with bacteremia or an adverse outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SSS scoring system was better for identifying cows with bacteremia or an adverse outcome than was the LSS system and that the LS1 and LS2 systems were intermediate in their discriminatory abilities.
Objective—To evaluate biosecurity practices of cowcalf
Sample Population—2,713 cow-calf operations
were used in phase 1 of the study, and 1,190 cow-calf
operations were used in phase 2.
Procedure—Producers were contacted for a personal
interview between Dec 30, 1996 and Feb 3, 1997
regarding their management practices. Noninstitutional
operations with 1 or more beef cows were
eligible to participate in the study. Producers who participated
in the first phase of the study and who had
≥ 5 beef cows were requested to continue in the
study and were contacted by a veterinarian or animal
health technician who administered further questionnaires.
All contacts for the second phase of the study
were made between Mar 3, 1997 and Apr 30, 1997.
Additional data on use of various vaccines, testing of
imported cattle for brucellosis, Mycobacterium
paratuberculosis, bovine viral diarrhea, and tuberculosis
as well as potential for feed contamination were
collected during the second phase of the study.
Results—Producers commonly engaged in management
practices that increased risk of introducing disease
to their cattle such as importing cattle, failing to
quarantine imported cattle, and communal grazing.
Producers inconsistently adjusted for the increased risk
of their management practices by increasing the types
of vaccines given, increasing the quarantine time or
proportion of imported animals quarantined, or increasing
testing for various diseases in imported animals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cow-calf
herds are at risk for disease exposure from outside
sources when cattle are introduced to the herd, and
producers do not always adjust management practices
such as vaccination schedules and quarantine
procedures appropriately to minimize this risk.
Veterinary involvement in education of producers
regarding biosecurity risks and development of rational
and economical biosecurity plans is needed. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:185–189)
Objective—To determine the proportion of adult cattle
that change test status when an ELISA for antibodies
against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis
(MAP) is used to assay samples collected
twice at variable intervals and to determine whether
cows with an initial strong positive result were more
likely to maintain positive status, compared with all
cows with an initial positive result.
Design—Cross-sectional observational study.
Animals—3,757 adult dairy cattle.
Procedure—Serum samples were obtained twice
from cattle at intervals ranging from 77 to 600 days
between collections. Samples were tested with an
ELISA for detection of antibodies to MAP.
Results—Of 157 cattle with initial positive results
(value for the sample divided by the value for positivecontrol
serum [S/P] ≥ 0.25), 62 (39.5%) had negative
results for the second sample. Of 71 cattle with an
initial S/P value ≥ 0.40, 13 (18.3%) had a negative
result (S/P < 0.25) for the second sample. Of 33 cattle
with an initial S/P ≥ 0.70, 3 (9.1%) had a negative
result (S/P value < 0.25) for the second sample.
Interval between collection of samples did not affect
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many cows
changed ELISA status between samples collected at
variable intervals. Cows with an initial high S/P value
(≥ 0.70) were more likely to maintain positive status
than cows classified as positive on the basis of cutoff
values of ≥ 0.25 or ≥ 0.40. Veterinarians should
expect variability in ELISA results when repeated
testing of cattle is used as part of an MAP control program.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1685–1689)
Objective—To analyze the sulfur content of water
and forage samples from a geographically diverse
sample of beef cow-calf operations in the United
States and to estimate frequency and distribution of
premises where forage and water resources could
result in consumption of hazardous amounts of sulfur
Sample Population—709 forage samples from 678
beef cow-calf operations and individual water samples
from 498 operations in 23 states.
Procedure—Sulfur content of forage samples and
sulfate concentration of water samples were measured.
Total sulfur intake was estimated for pairs of
forage and water samples.
Results—Total sulfur intake was estimated for 454
pairs of forage and water samples. In general, highest
forage sulfur contents did not coincide with highest
water sulfate concentrations. Overall, 52 of the 454
(11.5%) sample pairs were estimated to yield total
sulfur intake (as a percentage of dry matter) ≥ 0.4%,
assuming water intake during conditions of high
ambient temperature. Most of these premises were
in north-central (n = 19) or western (19) states.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that on numerous beef cow-calf operations
throughout the United States, consumption of forage
and water could result in excessively high sulfur
intake. All water sources and dietary components
should be evaluated when assessing total sulfur
intake. Knowledge of total sulfur intake may be useful
in reducing the risk of sulfur-associated health and
performance problems in beef cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine effects on production and
risk of removal related to Mycobacterium avium subsp
paratuberculosis (MAP) infection at the individual animal
level in dairy cattle.
Animals—7,879 dairy cows from 38 herds in 16 states.
Procedure—A subset of dairy cattle operations that
participated in the National Animal Health Monitoring
System Dairy 2002 study was evaluated via a serum
ELISA for antibodies against MAP and categorized
according to ELISA score. Dairy Herd Improvement
Association records were obtained to collect current
and historical lactation data and removal (ie, culling)
information. Production variables were evaluated on
the basis of serum ELISA category.
Results—Cows with strong positive results had
mature equivalent (ME) 305-day milk production, ME
305-day maximum milk production, and total lifetime
milk production that were significantly lower than cows
in other categories. No differences were observed for
ME 305-day fat and protein percentages, age, lactation,
and lactation mean linear somatic cell count score
between cows with strong positive results and those
with negative results. After accounting for lactation
number and relative herd-level milk production, cows
with strong positive results were significantly more
likely to have been removed by 1 year after testing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Without management
changes designed to reduce the farm-level
prevalence of MAP infection, paratuberculosis will continue
to reduce farm income by decreasing milk production
and potentially increasing premature removal from
the herd. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1975–1981)
Objective—To evaluate the use of systemic disease
signs for classifying severity of acute coliform mastitis
in dairy cows.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—144 dairy cows.
Procedure—Cows were examined at the time of initial
identification of disease (time 0) and classified as having
mild, moderate, or severe disease on the basis of
rectal temperature, hydration status, rumen contraction
rate, and attitude. A CBC and serum biochemical
analyses were performed, and milk samples were submitted
for bacterial culture at time 0 and 48 hours later.
Results—69 cows were classified as having mild disease,
44 as having moderate disease, and 31 as having
severe disease. Median WBC and neutrophil
counts were significantly lower in cows with moderate
or severe disease at time 0 than in cows with mild
disease. Band neutrophil count was significantly higher
at 48 hours and serum calcium concentration was
significantly lower at time 0 and at 48 hours in cows
with severe or moderate disease, compared with
cows with mild disease. Twenty-eight, 51, and 77% of
cows with mild, moderate, and severe disease,
respectively, had > 100,000 colony-forming units/ml
of milk at time 0. The odds that a cow with severe disease
would die or be culled were 3.6 times the odds
for a cow with moderate disease and 11.2 times the
odds for a cow with mild disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that a classification scheme based on readily
observable systemic disease signs can be used to
classify disease severity in cows with acute coliform
mastitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:567–572)
Objective—To evaluate associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) and caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test results in cattle.
Design—Longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluations.
Animals—1 California (approx 3,600 cows) and 3 Colorado (approx 640, 1,190, and 1,480 cows) dairy herds considered free of Mycobacterium bovis infection.
Procedures—In the California herd, the association between CFT response and MAP status was determined with ELISA and mycobacterial culture of feces within 1 year before and after CFT testing. The association between CFT and MAP status in all herds was modeled with mixed-effects logistic regression.
Results—In the California herd, significantly higher odds of being classified as suspect by CFT were found for cows with results of MAP ELISA negative before and positive after CFT testing (OR, 5.6) and cows positive before and after CFT testing (OR, 8.1). Higher odds were found for cows positive for mycobacterial culture of feces before and negative for culture after CFT testing (OR, 4.6) and cows negative for mycobacterial culture of feces before and positive for culture after CFT testing (OR, 13.2). All herds had higher odds of being classified as suspect by CFT testing for cows with positive results for ELISA (OR, 2.9) or mycobacterial culture of feces (OR, 5.0), compared with cows with negative results of the same tests.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A strong association was found between positive MAP test results and being classified as a suspect by CFT testing. Within-herd MAP prevalence may affect specificity of CFT testing for tuberculosis in cattle.
Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of Mycobacterium
avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) infection
among adult dairy cows in Colorado and determine
herd-level factors associated with the risk that individual
cows would be seropositive.
Design—Cross-sectional observational study.
Animals—10,280 adult (≥ 2 years old) dairy cows in
15 herds in Colorado.
Procedure—Serum samples were tested with a commercial
ELISA. A herd was considered to be infected
with MAP if results of mycobacterial culture of ≥ 1
individual cow fecal sample were positive or if ≥ 1
culled cow had histologic evidence of MAP infection.
Results—424 of the 10,280 (4.12%) cows were
seropositive. Within-herd prevalence of seropositive
cows ranged from 0% to 7.82% (mean, 2.6%).
Infection was confirmed in 11 dairies. Cows in herds
that had imported ≥ 8% of their current herd size
annually during the preceding 5 years were 3.28
times as likely to be seropositive as were cows in
herds that imported < 8%. Cows in herds with ≥ 600
lactating cows were 3.12 times as likely to be
seropositive as were cows in herds with < 600 lactating
cows. Cows in herds with a history of clinical
signs of MAP infection were 2.27 times as likely to be
seropositive as were cows in herds without clinical
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Annual importation
rate, herd size, and whether cows in the herd
had clinical signs typical of MAP infection were associated
with the risk that individual cows would be
seropositive for MAP infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
The report provided here contains a simplified set of diagnostic testing recommendations. These recommendations were developed on the basis of research funded by the USDA–Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service–Veterinary Services through a cooperative agreement. The report is intended to provide simple, practical, cost-effective consensus testing recommendations for cattle herds that are not enrolled in the US Test-Negative Program. The information has been reviewed by paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) experts at the USDA and academic centers as well as stakeholders in various segments of the cattle industry. The recommendations were accepted by the National Johne's Working Group and Johne's Disease Committee of the US Animal Health Association during their annual meetings in October 2006.
The report is intended to aid veterinarians who work with cattle producers in the United States. The recommendations are based on information available up to October 2006. There is a paucity of large-scale, high-quality studies of multiple tests conducted on samples obtained from the same cattle. It is understood that there may be special circumstances that require deviation from these recommendations. Furthermore, as new information becomes available and assays are improved and their accuracy is critically evaluated, changes to these recommendations may be necessary.