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  • Author or Editor: Franklin A. Ahrens x
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Objective—To evaluate the activity of Kupffer cells (KC) of control neonatal pigs and neonatal pigs treated with endotoxin and to compare activity of KC with that of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM).

Sample Population—Kupffer cells and PAM obtained from 24 neonatal pigs (7 to 10 days old).

Procedure—Pairs (n = 7) of littermates served as treated (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) or untreated pigs. Pigs were euthanatized 24 hours after treatment, and cells were isolated. Cells were obtained from 10 other neonatal pigs for other assays. Functional activity of cells was evaluated by use of in vitro assays to evaluate bactericidal activity, phagocytosis, and production of superoxide anion (SOA), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Each assay was repeated on cells obtained from 4 to 6 pigs.

Results—Phagocytic activity was similar in KC and PAM, but bactericidal activity and production of SOA and TNF-α was lower in KC. Neither KC nor PAM produced NO in response to LPS stimulation. Phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and production of SOA were enhanced for KC obtained from neonatal pigs treated with LPS. The PAM from LPS-treated neonatal pigs had similar bactericidal activity to PAM obtained from untreated pigs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Functional capacity of KC is affected by endotoxin. This provides additional information of the role the liver plays in immune surveillance. In addition, the response of KC in neonatal pigs exposed to endotoxin is of value for understanding gram-negative bacterial sepsis, which is a major cause of mortality in neonatal pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1040–1045)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To develop a model to study the kinetics and relative amounts of cytokines produced by liver cells during enteric infection.


Salmonella enteriditis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-or live S choleraesuis-stimulated isolated livers from clinically normal pigs and pigs with active acute phase response.


7- to 14-day-old salmonellosis-free pigs, 4 to 12/group.


Livers were removed and perfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution for 30 minutes and with S choleraesuis or LPS added for 7 minutes. Livers were then perfused with 500 ml of fresh solution in a closed loop procedure for 180 minutes. Perfusate samples were collected for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) bioassays.


Tumor necrosis factor-α values remained constant during perfusion of normal livers and increased in those exposed to LPS. Interleukin 6 values increased in perfusate from normal livers from 30 to 150 minutes, then decreased. In livers from pigs with an active acute phase response, TNFα values were reduced; IL-6 appeared by 2 minutes and decreased after 25 minutes.


Isolated livers could be kept viable for 3 hours, and IL-6 and TNFα could be measured by the bioassays used.

Clinical Relevance

Model can be used for studying and modifying the response of liver cells to infective agents. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:472–476)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To evaluate lavage analytes as markers of mucosal inflammation in healthy dogs and dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).


Case control study.


9 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with IBD.


A polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution was administered into the dogs’colons via a rectal balloon catheter prior to colonoscopy. Lavage solution was allowed to remain intraluminally for 30 minutes and then was withdrawn. Lavage supernatant samples were immediately analyzed for total protein, IgG, and nitrite concentrations and myeloperoxidase activity. Mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from the descending colon and histologically reviewed.


All dogs with IBD had mild to severe lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis, whereas 8 of 9 healthy dogs did not have substantial mucosal inflammation. Myeloperoxidase activity was not detected in lavage samples from healthy dogs or dogs with IBD. Total protein concentration was not significantly different between groups. Mean nitrite and IgG concentrations were significantly higher in samples from dogs with IBD (1.83 nmol/ml and 46 mg/dl, respectively), compared with samples from healthy dogs (0.245 nmol/ml and undetectable concentrations, respectively). Severity of lesions was not correlated with nitrite or IgG concentration.

Clinical Implications—

Assay of nitrite and IgG concentrations in colonic lavage fluid Is a simple, objective means of evaluating mucosal inflammation in dogs with IBD. Potential uses include monitoring response to treatment and evaluation of complex cases of chronic intestinal inflammation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:318–321)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association