Objective—To evaluate the use of sucrose permeability
testing to detect ulcers in the gastric squamous
mucosa of horses.
Animals—13 adult horses ranging from 5 to 19 years
Procedure—Following induction of gastric ulcers by
intermittent feed deprivation, horses underwent
sucrose permeability testing (administration of
sucrose by nasogastric intubation followed by collection
of urine at 2 and 4 hours after intubation) and gastric
endoscopy. Squamous ulcers were assigned a
severity score (range, 0 to 3) by use of an established
scoring system. Horses were subsequently administered
omeprazole for 21 days, and sucrose testing
and endoscopy were repeated. Pair-wise comparisons
of urine sucrose concentration were made
between horses with induced ulcers before and after
omeprazole treatment. Urine sucrose concentrations
also were compared on the basis of ulcer severity
Results—Urine sucrose concentrations and ulcer
severity scores were significantly higher in horses
with induced ulcers before omeprazole treatment
than after treatment. Urine sucrose concentrations
were significantly higher for horses with ulcer severity
scores > 1. Use of a cut-point value of 0.7 mg/mL
revealed that the apparent sensitivity and specificity
of sucrose permeability testing to detect ulcers with
severity scores > 1 was 83% and 90%, respectively.
Results were similar after adjusting sucrose concentrations
for urine osmolality.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urine sucrose
concentration appears to be a reliable but imperfect
indicator of gastric squamous ulcers in horses.
Sucrose permeability testing may provide a simple,
noninvasive test to detect and monitor gastric ulcers
in horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:31–39)
Objective—To compare effects of a commercially
available omeprazole paste and a compounded
omeprazole suspension on healing of gastric ulcers in
Thoroughbred racehorses in active training.
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—32 horses with gastric ulcers.
Procedure—Horses were assigned to 2 groups on the
basis of endoscopic gastric ulcer severity. Group-1
horses were treated with omeprazole suspension for
30 days and with omeprazole paste for an additional
30 days. Group-2 horses were treated with omeprazole
paste for 30 days and omeprazole suspension for
an additional 30 days. Serum omeprazole concentrations
were measured in 4 additional healthy horses
after administration of a single dose of each formulation.
In all instances, omeprazole was administered at
a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb), PO.
Results—Ulcer severity scores on day 0 were not
significantly different between groups. On day 30,
ulcer severity score was significantly decreased,
compared with day-0 score, in group-2 but not in
group-1 horses. On day 60, ulcer severity score was
significantly decreased, compared with day-0 and
day-30 scores, in group-1 horses. In group-2 horses,
ulcer severity score on day 60 was significantly lower
than the day-0 score but was not significantly different
from the day-30 score. Maximum observed
serum omeprazole concentration and area under the
concentration-time curve were significantly higher
after administration of the paste versus the suspension
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that although administration of the commercially
available paste omeprazole formulation was effective
in promoting healing of gastric ulcers in these horses,
administration of the compounded omeprazole suspension
was ineffective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1139–1143)
Animals—124 dogs with compensated mitral valve regurgitation (MR).
Procedures—Dogs randomly assigned to receive enalapril or placebo were monitored for the primary endpoint of onset of CHF for ≤ 58 months. Secondary endpoints included time from study entry to the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death; number of dogs free of CHF at 500, 1,000, and 1,500 days; and mean number of CHF-free days.
Results—Kaplan-Meier estimates of the effect of enalapril on the primary endpoint did not reveal a significant treatment benefit. Chronic enalapril administration did have a significant benefit on the combined endpoint of CHF-all-cause death (benefit was 317 days [10.6 months]). Dogs receiving enalapril remained free of CHF for a significantly longer time than those receiving placebo and were significantly more likely to be free of CHF at day 500 and at study end.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic enalapril treatment of dogs with naturally occurring, moderate to severe MR significantly delayed onset of CHF, compared with placebo, on the basis of number of CHF-free days, number of dogs free of CHF at days 500 and study end, and increased time to a combined secondary endpoint of CHF-all-cause death. Improvement in the primary endpoint, CHF-free survival, was not significant. Results suggest that enalapril modestly delays the onset of CHF in dogs with moderate to severe MR.