Objective—To determine the accuracy of pressure plate kinetic asymmetry indices (ASIs) for diagnosis of unilateral hind limb lameness in dogs and their correlation with visual gait assessment (VGA) scores.
Animals—9 healthy dogs and 16 dogs with previously diagnosed unilateral rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and concurrent unilateral hind limb lameness.
Procedures—Dogs were walked over a pressure plate to determine paw contact area (PCA), peak vertical pressure (PVP), peak vertical force (PVF), and vertical impulse (VI) of both hind limbs. An ASI was calculated for each gait variable. Simultaneously, gait was assessed visually and scored by use of a numeric rating scale (0 to 10). The ASI of each variable was tested for its usefulness in discrimination between lame and nonlame dogs and for correlation with VGA scores.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of ASIs to discriminate between lame and nonlame dogs were excellent for PVF, VI, and PCA; these values were substantially lower for ASI of PVP. Cutoff values to discriminate between lame and nonlame dogs were determined by use of ASIs for PVF, VI, and PCA; however, this could not be done for ASI of PVP. Correlations between ASIs of PVF, VI, and PCA and VGA scores were higher than correlation between the ASIs of PVP and VGA scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ASIs of PVF and VI determined via analysis of pressure plate measurements were reliable indicators of clinical lameness in dogs, but the ASI of PVP was not. The ASI of PCA is an interesting new variable for assessment of limb loading symmetry.
Objective—To evaluate the biological behavior of a nonresorbable bone substitute (NRBS) in the alveoli of ponies, compared with tissue quality in naturally healing alveoli, after cheek tooth extraction.
Animals—5 clinically normal ponies.
Procedures—In each pony, both maxillary fourth premolars (Triadan 108/208) were repulsed bilaterally during anesthesia. One randomly chosen alveolus was filled with NRBS and isolated from the oral cavity by use of dental impression material and a spring-wire retention device. The other alveolus was occluded in its occlusal third portion with dental impression material. One year after surgery, cylindrical lateromedial biopsy specimens were collected from the apical, middle, and occlusal level of each alveolus. Biopsy samples were evaluated for bone mineral density and bone volume via micro–computed tomography; qualitative histologic characteristics were evaluated via light microscopy.
Results—Bone mineral density and bone volume were greater in control alveoli, compared with NRBS-treated alveoli. Control alveoli were characterized by the presence of few mature bone trabeculae and wide spaces containing fat tissue and mesenchymal stroma. In treated alveoli, biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of the NRBS were excellent; continuous bone formation and bone remodeling were also evident.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the NRBS was integrated well in calcified alveolar tissues in ponies 1 year after maxillary cheek tooth extraction. Further research is necessary to establish the benefits of this NRBS in the development of a dental implant surgical technique in equids.
Objective—To develop a practical ultrasonography-guided injection approach to anesthetic blockade of the femoral nerve in calves and to assess the method's accuracy.
Animals—13 cadavers of 4-week-old male Holstein Friesian calves.
Procedures—Detailed topographic and anatomic cross-sectional evaluation of the relevant topography in 3 cadavers was performed to identify optimal injection approaches to the femoral nerve. Three approaches (ventral paravertebral, dorsal paravertebral, and ileal) were evaluated by simulated ultrasonography-guided perineural injection of methylene blue dye in 10 cadavers. Ultrasonographic image quality, number of needle redirections required for correct needle positioning, and injection success as defined through a 3-point grading system were recorded.
Results—The dorsal paravertebral approach yielded the best results, compared with the ileal and ventral paravertebral approaches, to properly and adequately stain the targeted nerve.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The dorsal paravertebral injection technique appeared to be the best choice for performing a femoral nerve block in calves, although this technique will need to be further evaluated in live calves to determine its effectiveness and clinical usefulness. Diagnostic perineural anesthesia of the femoral nerve in cattle might be helpful in identifying quadriceps muscle involvement in those with complex spastic paresis.