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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor muscle (inferior check desmotomy) permitted Standardbred foals affected with flexural deformities to reach their full athletic potential. Long-term effects of inferior check desmotomy were examined in 23 Standardbreds over a 10-year period. Six of 11 foals that were treated surgically either raced 6 times and obtained a race record or were training sound (if yearlings). All 12 horses with flexural deformity that did not receive an inferior check desmotomy had an unfavorable outcome (no race record). Foals that had surgery performed at a younger age apparently had a better chance of racing or training sound because no foals treated surgically after 8 months of age had a favorable outcome and only 1 foal that was older than 5 months at the time of surgery had a favorable outcome. In 5 foals that had surgery with an unsuccessful outcome, 3 were ≥1 year old at the time of surgery and were lame when training was started on the limb(s) with the desmotomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 51 horses with epiglottic entrapment were reviewed, and the outcome after surgical treatment was evaluated by use of results from a survey of owners and from race records. Horses with epiglottic entrapment and no additional problem (uncomplicated) of the nares, nasal passages, pharynx, or larynx (upper airway) that were treated by transoral axial division (group 1) or resection via laryngotomy (group 2), and horses with epiglottic entrapment complicated by an additional upper airway abnormality (group 3) were compared. The cost of treatment, duration of hospitalization, time to first race start after surgery, and complication rate were significantly (P < 0.05) less in horses in group 1, compared with those in horses of group 2. Owner survey indicated that a significantly greater percentage (82%) of horses in group 1 had a successful outcome after transoral axial division, compared with that (27%) of horses in group 2. Analysis of race records indicated that performance was similar between horses in groups 1 and 2, and significantly more horses with an additional upper airway lesion (group 3) failed to return to racing than did horses with uncomplicated epiglottic entrapment (groups 1 and 2). Transoral axial division of the aryepiglottic fold is recommended as an appropriate treatment for uncomplicated epiglottic entrapment. Resection via laryngotomy should be reserved for treatment of epiglottic entrapment associated with excessively thick and scarred aryepiglottic folds and for intermittent epiglottic entrapment in horses for which surgical correction is deemed appropriate. Horses with epiglottic entrapment complicated by previous aryepiglottic fold surgery or another upper airway abnormality, particularly epiglottic deformity or dorsal displacement of the soft palate, should receive a less favorable prognosis for return to athletic performance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 50 horses with extensor tendon lacerations affecting 53 limbs over 7 years (1982 to 1988) were reviewed to determine the clinical features and prognosis for athletic soundness after treatment. Mean and median ages were 4.8 and 3 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent of the injuries involved the hind limbs, with approximately equal distribution between the right and left limbs. Hind limb lacerations involved the long digital extensor tendon (28 limbs), lateral digital extensor tendon (3 limbs), or both tendons (16 limbs). Forelimb lacerations involved the common digital extensor tendon (2 limbs), lateral digital extensor tendon (1 limb), or both tendons (3 limbs). Joint involvement was found in 6 cases. Wound management varied according to wound characteristics, financial constraints of owners, and clinician preference. External coaptation consisted of a 3-layered cotton bandage in 33 limbs, splint and cotton bandage in 12 limbs, fiberglass or plaster-of-Paris cast in 5 limbs, and no form of coaptation in 3 limbs.

Follow-up information for 40 cases at least 1 year after injury revealed that 29 (73%) horses had returned to athletic soundness, 7 (18%) horses were pasture sound, 3 horses were chronically lame, and 1 horse was euthanatized during treatment because of wound sepsis. Depending on the hind limb tendons involved, return to athletic soundness ranged from 62% (long digital and lateral digital extensor tendons lacerated) to 80% (long digital extensor tendon lacerated) The small number of forelimb lacerations precluded any comparative data. Five of 6 horses with joint involvement returned to athletic soundness. Complications during treatment included wound sepsis/cellulitis, bone sequestra/osteitis of the third metatarsus, and exuberant granulation tissue.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effect of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser-performed neurectomy was compared with conventional scalpel-performed neurectomy, using the rat sciatic nerve model. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve by 1 of 3 methods. The sciatic nerve of rats under general anesthesia was transected by use of a steel scalpel blade (group 1, n = 5); a contact Nd:YAG laser at 6 W of power (group 2, n = 6); or an Nd:YAG laser at 12 W of power (group 3, n = 5). Thirty days after surgery, all rats were euthanatized and the nerves were harvested, imbedded in paraffin, fixed, and sectioned for light microscopy. Neurodegenerative changes and perineurial cell proliferation were least severe in the nerves transected by use of a steel scalpel (group 1), and were most severe in nerves transected by use of the laser at 6 W of power (group 2). There was a significant difference in prevalence of perineurial proliferation between the scalpel and laser neurectomy groups (P = 0.029). There was no significant difference in prevalence of neuroma formation or neurodegeneration between the laser and scalpel neurectomy groups, although neuromas were found in 3 rats (2 from group 2 and 1 from group 3). Within the limits of this study, we found that the Nd:YAG laser was less successful than sharp division, using a scalpel, in preventing neuroma formation after nerve transection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Medical records of 11 adult horses with jejunal intussusception examined at 5 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1981 and 1991 were reviewed. Nine of 11 horses had signs of acute abdominal discomfort for <24 hours, whereas 2 horses had a history of chronic signs. Five of 11 horses had an intraluminal or intramural mass associated with the jejunal intussusception.

Two horses died or were euthanatized prior to surgery. Partial jejunal resection and jejunojejunal anastomosis were performed in 9 horses. One horse died during surgery and 2 were euthanatized prior to hospital discharge because of postoperative complications. Four of the 6 horses that were discharged from the hospital survived from 16 months to 6 years and returned to their previous level of performance. One horse died 3 months after surgery from unknown causes, and 1 horse was lost to long-term follow-up evaluation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association