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  • Author or Editor: Francis A. Kallfelz x
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SUMMARY

The size and quality of muscle specimens obtained by use of a percutaneous biopsy technique were studied. All biopsies were performed under local anesthesia, using an 11-gauge biopsy needle. The mean ± sem size of specimens obtained from 128 biopsies of the semitendinosus muscles of 16 Alaskan Huskies was 23.8 ± 4.4 mg. All biopsy specimens were of sufficient quality to permit histochemical differentiation of the fiber types by use of myosin ATPase staining. An additional 8 biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 dog and analyzed for muscle glycogen content. These specimens contained 50.6 ± 7.2 mmol of glucose/kg of muscle wet weight. This modified biopsy procedure was free of notable complications, and repeatable use produced specimens of adequate size and quality for histologic and biochemical analysis. It is concluded that this procedure is a safe and reliable alternative to open biopsy for diagnosis and management of neuromuscular, metabolic, and nutritional myopathies.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The feasibility of renal arterial infusion of nonbiodegradable microspheres as a model of chronic renal disease in dogs was evaluated. Resin-coated, styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer microspheres were infused into the kidneys of healthy adult Beagles by direct injections of both renal arteries in a single surgical procedure. Injections of 25-μm diameter microspheres had minimal effect on either the clinical status or serum values of the dogs. Histologic examination revealed the majority of the microspheres lodged within the capillary beds of the glomeruli, and little change to the kidneys. However, injections of 50-μm diameter microspheres caused significant increases in serum concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine. Histologically, the larger microspheres obstructed afferent arterioles and small arteries, which caused diffuse glomerular necrosis and nephron damage.

With doses ranging from 1 to 3 million microspheres/dog, a correlation between the quantity of microspheres injected and severity of renal damage was observed. The optimal dose for producing a model of moderate renal disease was determined to be 1.8 million microspheres/dog (0.9 million microspheres/kidney).

During long-term studies, microsphere-injected dogs fed a moderately restricted protein ration remained relatively azotemic, compared with control dogs on the identical ration. During the 5-month postsurgical period, the serum urea nitrogen concentration averaged 18.41 ± 1.59 mg/dl (mean ± SE) for the microsphere-injected dogs vs 9.31 ± 0.38 for the control dogs (P < 0.001). Similarly, the mean serum creatinine value was significantly higher (P = 0.020) for the microsphere-injected dogs, compared with the controls (1.28 ± 0.12 mg/dl vs 0.94 ± 0.03). In addition, the difference in mean endogenous creatinine clearance rates was statistically significant (microsphere-injected 1.02 ± 0.05 ml/min/kg, vs control 1.53 ± 0.06, P < 0.001).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs receiving parenteral nutrition solutions.

Animals—8 clinically normal female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 4 treatments in random order. Treatment A consisted of IV administration of nonlactated Ringer's solution. Treatments B, C, and D consisted of IV administration of isocaloric parenteral solutions containing 0, 1.36, and 2.04 g of amino acids/kg of body weight/d, respectively, for 7 consecutive days. Urine and feces were collected on days 5, 6, and 7 of each treatment period, and Kjeldahl analysis was used to determine nitrogen balance.

Results—Mean nitrogen balance was negative with treatments A and B but was not significantly different from 0 with treatments C and D. Dogs had the lowest nitrogen balance values and lost the most weight while receiving treatment A. Dogs were able to conserve protein and had higher nitrogen balance values when receiving treatment B, compared with treatment A. Dogs lost the least amount of weight while receiving treatment D. Regression analysis indicated that an IV amino acid intake of 2.32 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 2.81 g/kg/d), as supplied by the commercial product used in this study, would result in zero nitrogen balance in clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IV amino acid requirement of clinically normal dogs is approximately 2.3 g/kg/d. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:912–920)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of protein intake on blood variables, plasma volume, and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) in sled dogs undergoing rigorous training.

Animals

32 Alaskan sled dogs, between 2 and 6 years old.

Procedure

Dogs were assigned to 1 of 4 groups on the basis of age, sex, and ability. Isocaloric diets containing 18% (diet A), 23% (diet B), 29% (diet C), or 35% (diet D) of energy as protein were assigned randomly to each group and fed 1 month before and during a 12-week training period. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured at 0 (before training) and 12 weeks. Body weight, protein and energy intake, plasma volume, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and serum biochemical variables were measured at 0, 8, and 12 weeks.

Results

Serum biochemical variables, PCV, and hemoglobin concentration remained within reference ranges for all dogs. Dogs fed diet A had a decrease in Vo2max and a greater rate of soft tissue injury throughout training, compared with dogs fed the other diets. At 12 weeks, dogs fed diets C and D had greater serum sodium concentration and hemoglobin concentration than did dogs fed diet A. Dogs fed diet D also had more plasma volume at 12 weeks than did dogs of any other group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Consumption of a diet with 18% dietary protein on an energy basis (3.0 g of protein/kg of body weight) is insufficient to meet the metabolic requirements of sled dogs in training. For intense interval work, a diet with 35% dietary protein as energy (6.0 g of protein/kg) may provide a performance advantage by promoting an increase in plasma volume. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60: 789–795)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To perform respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays on canine skeletal muscle biopsy specimens and establish reference range values of skeletal muscle enzyme activities for dogs.

Sample Population—Biopsy specimens from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 24 dogs (8 sexually intact males and 14 sexually intact females) ranging from 15 months to 6 years of age.

Procedure—Mean values of citrate synthase, cytochrome-c oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase, and NADH dehydrogenase-cytochrome-c reductase activities were established by use of 6 standard spectrophotometric assays for respiratory chain enzyme analysis.

Results—Compared with published data for skeletal muscle enzyme activities in humans, skeletal muscle enzyme activities in dogs were 2- to 4-fold higher. Additionally, citrate synthase activity, a marker for mitochondrial volume, was positively correlated with age in dogs, suggesting that mitochondrial volume increases with age, although no apparent change in respiratory chain enzymatic activity with an increase in age was found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference range values for skeletal muscle enzyme activities of dogs are needed to accurately interpret results of respiratory chain enzymatic activity assays. During investigation of metabolic myopathies, if skeletal muscle biopsy specimens are evaluated for respiratory chain enzyme kinetics, they should be performed and evaluated in concert with skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from clinically normal animals of the same species. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:480–484)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 34 horses with a diagnosis of avulsion of the origin of the suspensory ligament that had been admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital between 1980 and 1993 were identified. In addition to clinical examination, 21 of 34 horses had scintigraphy and radiography performed during their examination. The usefulness of scintigraphy and radiography were assessed by comparing the initial findings reported in the medical record to those obtained in a retrospective review of the images. Thirty other horses with scintigraphic lesions of the proximal aspect of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone but with a confirmed diagnosis other than avulsion of the suspensory ligament served as controls for lesion specificity. Scintigraphy (bone phase, n=21) revealed increased uptake in all horses in both reviews. Only 14 of 21 (67%) horses radiographed, however, had at least 1 lesion during the initial radiographic evaluation that was reported to be suggestive of avulsion. When the radiographs were reviewed retrospectively, the radiologist identified 18 of 21 (86%) horses with lesions consistent with avulsion. The interpretation of scintigraphy appeared to be a more repeatable and sensitive diagnostic method than radiography. However, though scintigraphy was sensitive in identifying inflammation of the proximal aspect of the metacarpal/metatarsal region, no specific diagnosis of avulsion could be made without coincident radiography; the specificity of scintigraphy in diagnosing avulsion of the suspensory ligament was only 41% (21/51). Radiography of the proximal aspect of the third metacarpal/tarsal bone was found to be falsely negative in 3 of 21 (14%) horses on retrospective evaluation and in 7 of 21 (33%) horses on initial evaluation, perhaps because radiographic signs of disease were subtle.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Combined blood pool and delayed images produced by use of 99MTc-methylene diphosphonate (99MTcMDP) were evaluated as an objective measurement of the response of equine joints with osteochondral defects to postoperative exercise and intra-articularly administered polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG).

Osteochondral defects (approx 2.4 × 0.9 cm) were induced arthroscopically in the dorsodistal radial carpal bones of 18 ponies. These ponies were randomized (while balancing for age [range 2 to 15, median, 5.0; mean, 5.1 years]) to 2 treatment groups. Nine ponies were assigned to be exercised, and 9 were stall-rested. Six ponies in each group were administered PSGAG (250 mg) in 1 joint (medicated) and lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in the contralateral joint. The 3 remaining ponies in each group were administered LRS in both joints (nonmedicated). Medication was given at surgery, then weekly for 4 weeks. The exercise protocol (begun at postoperative day 6 and conducted twice daily) started with 30 minutes walking (approx 0.7 m/s), and, by postoperative month 3, the ponies were being walked for 15 minutes and trotted (approx 1.6 m/s) for 25 minutes. Simultaneous dorsal images of both carpi were made 2 to 3 minutes after IV administration of 99MTcMDP (blood pool image) and 90 to 120 minutes later (delayed image). Scintimetry, in counts per minute per pixel per millicurie, was done before, and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 13, and 17 weeks after surgery, prior to euthanasia.

Radionuclide uptake on blood pool images decreased faster than that on delayed images, in which uptake remained high for 17 weeks. This indicated that bone was metabolically active for at least 17 weeks after surgery. Exercise significantly (P < 0.05) decreased uptake on the blood pool images of medicated joints up to 1 month after surgery. Thus, exercise (in the presence of PSGAG) probably had a transient, beneficial effect on soft tissues of the joint. Exercise, without PSGAG, promoted increased bone remodeling, because the highest uptake on delayed images was observed in exercised, nonmedicated ponies up to 3 months after surgery. This was consistent with development of osteoarthritis in these ponies. Medication alone stimulated bone remodeling, and data indicated that an identical effect may take place in contralateral LRS-injected joints, because of systemic circulation of the drug. However, the combination of exercise and medication appeared to moderate the independent effects of each. The combination of exercise and medication in individual joints resulted in notably (P < 0.05) decreased bone remodeling. Medication caused a decrease in bone remodeling in exercised ponies, indicating a protective effect against development of osteoarthritis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A case-control study was done to identify factors associated with the development of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (edm). Questionnaires were mailed to the owners of 146 horses admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine between November 1978 and June 1987 and diagnosed as having edm by histologic examination. Questionnaires also were sent to owners of 402 clinically normal horses admitted to the college during the same period. Data were compared between the edm-affected and control groups (56 and 179 questionnaires returned, respectively). Risk factors identified included the use of insecticide applied to foals, exposure of foals to wood preservatives, and foals frequently spending time on dirt lots while outside. Foals spending time outside on green pastures was a protective factor. Foals from dams that had had an edm-affected foal were at higher risk of developing edm than were foals from other dams.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association