Objective—To validate the use of radiography to determine the length of sagittal otoliths in intact bogue (Boops boops; a sparid fish [commonly called sea bream]).
Sample—52 bogue cadavers.
Procedures—Weight and standard lengths (from the tip of the snout to the caudal end of the last vertebra) of fish were measured. The radiographic beam was centered over the postorbital area, and images were obtained via ventrodorsal, 30° right dorsal–left ventral oblique, and 30° left dorsal–right ventral oblique projections. Otoliths were removed from the fish; sagittae were measured directly and on radiographic images by use of a vernier caliper. The relationship between direct and radiographic measurements of sagittal otoliths was calculated.
Results—Paired sagittal, lapillus, and asteriscus otoliths were identified. Sagittal otoliths were comma-shaped on ventrodorsal projections; in oblique projections, they appeared ovoid and pairs of otoliths were located in the same dorsal plane. Radiographic length of sagittal otoliths was significantly correlated with directly measured length, and radiographic measurements were not significantly different between ventrodorsal and oblique radiographic projections.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radiographic examination of sagittae was useful to determine the length of sagittal otoliths and, consequently, the fish length. In ecological applications, the radiographic measurement of sagittal otolith length may be useful for studies on the aquatic diet of organisms (fish, pinnipeds, and marine birds) because it allows for quick back-calculation to the size of prey.
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of the size and location of regions of interest (ROIs) in the renal cortex of unsedated dogs on renal perfusion variables determined by use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS).
ANIMALS 12 client-owned adult (1.5 to 2 years old) Labrador Retrievers (8 males and 4 females; mean ± SD body weight, 27 ± 1.6 kg).
PROCEDURES Each dog received 2 bolus injections of sulfur hexafluoride during CEUS. Three small oval ROIs (area of each ROI, 0.11 cm2) located in a row with a distance of 1 mm between adjacent ROIs and 1 large oval ROI (area, 1 cm2) that encompassed the 3 smaller ROIs were manually drawn in the renal cortex. The ROIs were located at a depth of 1.5 to 2.0 cm in the near field of the renal cortex. Software analysis of time-intensity curves within each ROI was used to identify peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement, regional blood flow, and mean transit time.
RESULTS The location and size of the ROIs of unsedated dogs did not cause significant differences in the mean values of the renal perfusion variables.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The development of CEUS has provided a unique means for visually examining and quantifying tissue perfusion. Results of this study indicated that it was possible to use small or large ROIs during renal CEUS to evaluate renal perfusion in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on tear production of clinically normal cats by use of the Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 before and during anesthesia and after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole.
ANIMALS 40 client-owned crossbred domestic shorthair cats (23 males and 17 females; age range, 6 to 24 months).
PROCEDURES A complete physical examination, CBC, and ophthalmic examination were performed on each cat. Cats with no abnormalities on physical and ophthalmic examinations were included in the study. Cats were allocated into 2 groups: a control group (n = 10 cats) anesthetized by administration of a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (80 μg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and an experimental group (30) anesthetized with the medetomidine-ketamine combination and reversal by administration of atipamezole. Tear production of both eyes of each cat was measured by use of the STT I before anesthesia, 15 minutes after the beginning of anesthesia, and 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole.
RESULTS Anesthesia with a medetomidine-ketamine combination of cats with no ophthalmic disease caused a significant decrease in tear production. The STT I values returned nearly to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after reversal with atipamezole, whereas the STT I values for the control group were still low at that point.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that a tear substitute should be administered to eyes of cats anesthetized with a medetomidine-ketamine combination from the time of anesthetic administration until at least 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole.