An adult 3.8-kg (8.36-lb) neutered male shorthair cat was evaluated because of a 5-day history of diarrhea, poor appetite, lethargy, and skin nodules. The cat, which was regularly vaccinated against herpesvirus, calicivirus, and parvovirus, had been adopted the preceding year from an animal shelter where it had tested positive for circulating anti-FIV antibodies. The owner reported that the cat was currently fed commercial canned and dry food and lived indoors but was sometimes allowed to hunt outdoors. The cat had been in good general health. One month before the onset of the clinical signs, the owner noticed severe gingivostomatitis
Objective—To compare the distribution of
desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 2 in skin specimens obtained
from dogs and cats to provide information about the
possible role of the density of Dsg 1 and 2 in the localization
of lesions attributable to pemphigus foliaceus
in these 2 species.
Sample Population—Skin biopsy specimens
obtained from 4 dogs and 4 cats.
Procedure—Biopsy specimens were collected from
the muzzle, bridge of the nose, ear, dorsum,
abdomen, area adjacent to the teats, and footpads of
each animal. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed
on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin
samples by use of a biotinylated mouse monoclonal
anti-Dsg 1 and 2 antibody raised against bovine muzzle.
Color development was performed by use of the
streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with a chromogenic
Results—Immunohistochemical staining yielded a
positive reaction in skin samples obtained from all
anatomic sites. The intensity and distribution of staining
were related to the number of layers of the stratum
spinosum. No differences were detected
between samples obtained from dogs and cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No differences
in intensity of Dsg 1 and 2 antigen were observed in
the stratum spinosum between skin samples obtained
from dogs and cats. Analysis of this result suggests
that factors other than the distribution of Dsg may be
responsible for the differences in localization of primary
clinical lesions in dogs and cats with pemphigus foliaceus.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1931–1935)
To prospectively evaluate the clinical and prognostic importance of duodenal endoscopic and histologic findings, including duodenal mucosal counts of forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs), in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE).
57 client-owned dogs with IRE.
The canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) was used to assess each dog when IRE was diagnosed (T0) and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Dogs were grouped on the basis of clinical response (responder group vs nonresponder group) and 12-month long-term outcome (responded to treatment and did not relapse [good outcome group] vs did not respond to treatment or had relapsed [bad outcome group]). At T0, dogs underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy, with results for variables of duodenal endoscopic and histologic evaluations scored and compared across groups.
At T0, the overall median CCECAI score was 7; CCECAI score was not associated with clinical response or relapse. Dogs had significantly greater odds of being in the bad outcome group (vs the good outcome group) if they had a histologic score of 3 (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.09 to 11.3). No differences in the counts of Foxp3+ Tregs were detected between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In dogs with IRE, results indicated that evaluation of Foxp3+ Tregs did not have prognostic value, whereas a duodenal histologic score of 3 could be a negative prognostic factor for response and relapse, and higher severity scores for intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes and plasma cells in duodenal biopsy samples may be negatively associated with response.
Objective—To determine the distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in skin (including hair follicles and sweat and sebaceous glands) of clinically normal dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and to compare results with those for positive control samples for CB1 (hippocampus) and CB2 (lymph nodes).
Sample—Skin samples from 5 healthy dogs and 5 dogs with AD and popliteal lymph node and hippocampus samples from 5 cadavers of dogs.
Procedures—CB1 and CB2 were immunohistochemically localized in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of tissue samples.
Results—In skin samples of healthy dogs, CB1 and CB2 immunoreactivity was detected in various types of cells in the epidermis and in cells in the dermis, including perivascular cells with mast cell morphology, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In skin samples of dogs with AD, CB1 and CB2 immunoreactivity was stronger than it was in skin samples of healthy dogs. In positive control tissue samples, CB1 immunoreactivity was detected in all areas of the hippocampus, and CB2 immunoreactivity was detected in B-cell zones of lymphoid follicles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The endocannabinoid system and cannabimimetic compounds protect against effects of allergic inflammatory disorders in various species of mammals. Results of the present study contributed to knowledge of the endocannabinoid system and indicated this system may be a target for treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders such as allergic skin diseases in dogs.