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Summary

Comparison was made among results of cloacal specimen culture, and cloacal swab specimen (cytologic) peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap), serum latex agglutination (la), and tissue pap assays for diagnosis of chlamydiosis in 144 birds. Swab specimen pap findings correlated poorly with la results and failed to predict the la test result in any bird. Only 1 cloacal swab specimen was regarded as pap-positive and was from the cloaca of a bird from which chlamydiae were isolated in culture. The sensitivity of swab specimen pap, compared with culture results, was 33%, whereas specificity was 94%. In this study, swab specimen pap was a less sensitive test, compared with culture, than was reported in a previous study. The sensitivity of la in identifying birds that were cloacal culture-positive was poor; true-positive results were not detected, compared with culture results. The specificity of the la method was 93%, compared with culture results. Results of the tissue pap method correlated with culture results in the 3 birds for which both tests were performed.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 21 cats with spinal lymphoma were reviewed. All cats were evaluated for neurologic deficits, although 85% of cats necropsied had multicentric disease. Eighty-one percent of cats had hind limb paresis. Results of FeLV tests were positive in 84.2% (16/19) of the cats, and 68.7% (11/16) of the cats had leukemic bone marrow. Spinal lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy in 13 cats, by examination of a biopsy specimen in 1 cat, and by examination of cells aspirated from an epidural lesion in 2 cats. In the remaining 5 cats, a presumptive diagnosis was made on the basis of neurologic examination findings, positive FeLV test results, and leukemic bone marrow.

Nine cats were treated with chemotherapy alone. The complete remission rate was 50% in 6 cats given cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The median duration of complete remission was 14 weeks. Complete remissions were not observed in 3 cats given only corticosteroids. A single cat treated by laminectomy and postoperative chemotherapy had a prolonged remission (62 weeks).

At necropsy, lymphoma of the cns was limited to the vertebral canal in 10 of 13 cats; 2 cats had malignant tissue in the brain and vertebral canal, and in the remaining cat, the tumor extended into the brachial plexus. Most tumors extended over multiple vertebral bodies, and 4 cats had more than 1 level of spinal cord involvement. The lymphoma was high-grade lymphoblastic or immunoblastic type in all cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease was the diagnosis for 58 dogs and 26 cats, with signs of persistent gastroenteritis, failed responses to dietary trials, and histologic evidence of cellular infiltrates unrelated to other causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Clinical signs of large intestinal dysfunction, watery diarrhea, vomiting, and anorexia with weight loss were common. Nonspecific hematologic, biochemical, and radiographic abnormalities frequently were observed. Mucosal biopsy specimens, obtained endoscopically, were histologically evaluated for severity of mucosal epithelial damage. Mucosal erythema, friability, enhanced granularity, and ulceration or erosion were the predominant endoscopic lesions. Inflammatory bowel disease lesions of moderate severity predominated in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates were limited to the lamina propria in biopsy specimens from all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory bowel disease commonly is associated with chronic gastroenteritis in dogs and cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Three hundred forty-seven cases of lead poisoning in small animals, diagnosed after 1976, were reviewed. The types of treatments used and their outcomes were analyzed. Changes in blood lead concentrations following various treatments, as well as the sources of lead exposure, were also reviewed. The geographic origins of the cases were traced, and demographic factors were studied to determine possible correlates that might explain the regional distribution of cases.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Three hundred forty-seven cases of lead poisoning in small companion animals were reviewed. The yearly prevalence and overall incidence rates were examined for the 10 years before and after enactment of strict federal regulations pertaining to lead content in paint products. Biographical data, clinical signs, and laboratory results were analyzed for the 6 types of affected animals (ie, dogs, cats, birds, rabbits, a chinchilla, and a raccoon). Clinical and laboratory findings of these animals were then compared with findings of other studies of lead intoxication.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villi of duodenal mucosa from healthy dogs and from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastroenteritis.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

28 dogs, grouped according to clinical and histologic criteria: 11 dogs with IBD, 8 dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis, and 9 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Endoscopic biopsy specimens of duodenal mucosa from each dog were stained specifically for IgA and IgG heavy chains and pan T-cell (CD3) antigen, using immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analysis, performed via an image-analysis system, was used to count IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells within paired contiguous villi from each dog.

Results

T cells were the predominant immune cell type in all groups of dogs. Significant differences in the villus distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells were not observed. Healthy dogs had significantly higher T-cell counts than had dogs with IBD or gastroenteritis. Dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis had a significantly higher concentration of IgA-containing cells than the other groups of dogs had. Significant group differences for IgG-containing cells also were evident, with dogs with IBD having the lowest cell counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High concentrations of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villus lamina propria cannot be reliably used to distinguish IBD from other intestinal disorders in dogs. Evaluation of T cells may be the most discriminatory method for differentiating dogs with IBD from clinically normal dogs via examination of intestinal biopsy specimens. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:697–704)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To quantitate immunoglobulin-containing cells (IgA, IgG, and IgM) and CD3+ T cells in colonic biopsy specimens obtained from dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis (LPC), and to compare lymphocyte and plasma cell populations in dogs with LPC with those in healthy dogs.

Animals

10 healthy dogs and 11 dogs with LPC.

Procedure

Colonic mucosal specimens obtained from healthy dogs and dogs with LPC were stained specifically for IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-containing cells and CD3+ T cells by use of immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analyses were done to quantitate lymphocytes and plasma cells in standardized areas of colonic mucosa. Data analyses allowed determination of mean cell numbers in each dog group, and comparison of mean numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells between dog groups.

Results

CD3+ T cells predominated in healthy dogs, whereas CD3+ T cells and IgA-containing cells were most numerous in dogs with LPC. In both dog groups, the IgG- and IgM-containing cells were considerably less numerous than the other 2 cell types. Comparison of cell populations between dog groups indicated that IgA- and IgG-containing cells and CD3+ T cells were significantly more numerous in the colonic mucosa of dogs with LPC.

Conclusions

Dogs with LPC have significantly increased numbers of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and CD3+ T cells. These lymphocyte and plasma cell distributions indicate similarities to and differences from such distributions in human beings with inflammatory bowel disease. Results provide a basis for future correlation between histologic stage of disease activity and immunologic findings in dogs with LPC. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:515-520)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To examine clinical and pathologic findings in 60 ferrets with lymphoma.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

60 ferrets in which the diagnosis of lymphoma had been confirmed by means of histologic examination of biopsy or necropsy specimens.

Procedure

Information including age, sex, coat color, history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatment, outcome, and results of histologic examination of biopsy and necropsy specimens were retrieved from medical records of ferrets with spontaneous lymphoma examined between 1982 and 1994 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or private veterinary practices in 10 states. Classification of lymphoma was assigned according to the National Cancer Institute's working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, χ2 Trend analysis was used to determine whether age was associated with history, clinical signs, hematologic abnormalities, stage, histologic grade, or outcome.

Results

Acute onset, mediastinal mass, lymphocytosis, and multicentric distribution were linked with younger ferrets, and lymphopenia and survival longer than 2 months after diagnosis was associated with older ferrets. Twenty percent of ferrets in this study had cohabitated with another ferret with lymphoma. Chemotherapeutic efficacy was not evaluated.

Clinical Implications

Clinical and pathologic features linked with age should be considered when evaluating diagnostic and therapeutic options for ferrets with lymphoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208: 1297–1301)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association